Ionizing radiation induces mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production accompanied by upregulation of mitochondrial electron transport chain function and mitochondrial content under control of the cell cycle checkpoint.
ABSTRACT Whereas ionizing radiation (Ir) instantaneously causes the formation of water radiolysis products that contain some reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS are also suggested to be released from biological sources in irradiated cells. It is now becoming clear that these ROS generated secondarily after Ir have a variety of biological roles. Although mitochondria are assumed to be responsible for this Ir-induced ROS production, it remains to be elucidated how Ir triggers it. Therefore, we conducted this study to decipher the mechanism of Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. In human lung carcinoma A549 cells, Ir (10 Gy of X-rays) induced a time-dependent increase in the mitochondrial ROS level. Ir also increased mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration, and mitochondrial ATP production, suggesting upregulation of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) function after Ir. Although we found that Ir slightly enhanced mitochondrial ETC complex II activity, the complex II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid failed to reduce Ir-induced mitochondrial ROS production. Meanwhile, we observed that the mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA level were upregulated after Ir, indicating that Ir increased the mitochondrial content of the cell. Because irradiated cells are known to undergo cell cycle arrest under control of the checkpoint mechanisms, we examined the relationships between cell cycle and mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. We found that the cells in the G2/M phase had a higher mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level than cells in the G1 or S phase, regardless of whether the cells were irradiated. We also found that Ir-induced accumulation of the cells in the G2/M phase led to an increase in cells with a high mitochondrial content and cellular oxidative stress level. This suggested that Ir upregulated mitochondrial ETC function and mitochondrial content, resulting in mitochondrial ROS production, and that Ir-induced G2/M arrest contributed to the increase in the mitochondrial ROS level by accumulating cells in the G2/M phase.
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ABSTRACT: Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been widely used to quantify changes in gene copy numbers after radiation exposure. Here, we show that gamma irradiation ranging from 10 to 100 Gy of cells and cell-free DNA samples significantly affects the measured qPCR yield, due to radiation-induced fragmentation of the DNA template and, therefore, introduces errors into the estimation of gene copy numbers. The radiation-induced DNA fragmentation and, thus, measured qPCR yield varies with temperature not only in living cells, but also in isolated DNA irradiated under cell-free conditions. In summary, the variability in measured qPCR yield from irradiated samples introduces a significant error into the estimation of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene copy numbers and may give spurious evidence for polyploidization. http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/6/11544International Journal of Molecular Sciences 05/2013; 14(6):11544-11559. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is a widely accepted that the cell nucleus is the primary site of radiation damage while extra-nuclear radiation effects are not yet systematically included into models of radiation damage. We performed Monte Carlo simulations assuming a spherical cell (diameter 11.5 μm) modelled after JURKAT cells with the inclusion of realistic elemental composition data based on published literature. The cell model consists of cytoplasm (density 1 g/cm3), nucleus (diameter 8.5 μm; 40% of cell volume) as well as cylindrical mitochondria (diameter 1 μm; volume 0.5 μm3) of three different densities (1, 2 and 10 g/cm3) and total mitochondrial volume relative to the cell volume (10, 20, 30%). Our simulation predicts that if mitochondria take up more than 20% of a cell's volume, ionisation events will be the preferentially located in mitochondria rather than in the cell nucleus. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we substantiate in JURKAT cells that human mitochondria respond to gamma radiation with early (within 30 min) differential changes in the expression levels of 18 mitochondrially encoded genes, whereby the number of regulated genes varies in a dose-dependent but non-linear pattern (10 Gy: 1 gene; 50 Gy: 5 genes; 100 Gy: 12 genes). The simulation data as well as the experimental observations suggest that current models of acute radiation effects, which largely focus on nuclear effects, might benefit from more systematic considerations of the early mitochondrial responses and how these may subsequently determine cell response to ionising radiation. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1567724913000299Mitochondrion 02/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Free radicals generated by mitochondria are candidates for mediating long-lasting effects of radiation on cells, including genetic instability. To better understand the significance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in these long-term effects we assayed ROS and RNS levels, the mitochondrial membrane potential and mass, and the frequency of DNA strand breaks, apoptosis and necrosis in human leukemic cells (K562 and HL60) after 12 Gy of X irradiation. An increase in intracellular ROS level was observed immediately post-irradiation, and about 24 h later a second increase of ROS was accompanied by increased in nitrogen oxide, mitochondrial potential and mitochondrial mass in both cell types. The second peak of ROS level was partially inhibited by rotenone, an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I, in K562 but not in HL60 cells suggesting that the sources of ROS differed in the two cell types. The frequency of DNA breaks showed kinetics similar to ROS levels, with a sharp peak immediately after irradiation and a second increase 24 and 48 h later, which was significantly higher in K562 cells. Forty-eight hours after irradiation an increase in the frequency of apoptotic cells was observed in both cell lines, which became larger and statistically significant in K562 cells after inhibition of mitochondrial complex I. Our results show that ionizing radiation activates cellular processes which produce long-lasting ROS and RNS radicals, which may have different sources in different cell types and could participate in cellular signaling networks important for radiosensitivity and mode of cell death.Radiation Research 09/2013; · 2.70 Impact Factor