Menthol induces cell-cycle arrest in PC-3 cells by down-regulating G2/M genes, including polo-like kinase 1.
ABSTRACT Menthol, a naturally occurring monoterpene, is used in foods, cosmetic products, and topical therapeutic preparations. It also exerts cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell types, including prostate cancer cells. However, little is known about the mechanism of menthol action against prostate cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of menthol on the gene expression profile of PC-3 prostate cancer cells using DNA microarray analyses. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that menthol primarily affects the expression of cell cycle-related genes. Subsequent experimental analyses validated that menthol induces G2/M arrest. Particularly, menthol markedly down-regulated polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1), a key regulator of G2/M phase progression and inhibited its downstream signaling. Our computational analyses and experimental validation provide a basis for future investigations that are aimed at elucidating the action of menthol on cell cycle control in prostate cancer cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Guy Paulin Poungoue Kamatou[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity.Phytochemistry 09/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor