Safety and effectiveness of sorafenib in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma in clinical practice
Liver Unit, Cardarelli Hospital, Naples, Italy. Digestive and Liver Disease
(Impact Factor: 2.96).
05/2012; 44(9):788-92. DOI: 10.1016/j.dld.2012.04.001
Sorafenib is currently the only approved systemic treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma.
to evaluate safety and effectiveness of sorafenib in the field of practice.
We report a single-centre experience on 116 advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patients treated with sorafenib between February 2008 and March 2011. Every 4 weeks, adverse events were graded using Common Toxicity Criteria version 3.0, and every 3 months tumour response was assessed according to modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cirrhosis was present in 95.7% of patients (83.6% Child-Pugh A class), hepatitis C was the main etiological factor. Median therapy duration was 3 months and median daily dose was 642 mg. Median time-to-radiological progression in the per-protocol population was 12 months and median overall survival in the intention-to-treat population was 13 months. 91.4% of patients experienced mild adverse events (grade 1 or 2), the most frequent were gastrointestinal and dermatological. Jaundice and bleeding were the main causes of definitive drug discontinuation. 3-month overall disease control rate was 70.6%: stable disease in 37.2%, partial response in 30.8%, and complete response in 2.6% patients. The 3-month radiological response correlated with overall survival.
In daily clinical practice, sorafenib confirmed its safety and efficacy in hepatocellular carcinoma patients.
Available from: Gaetano Bertino
- "In clinical practice, the failure of locoregional therapy, such as TACE, led to the use of sorafenib. Its efficacy and safety in HCC patients were demonstrated by the SHARP trial in western patients [70, 71]. "
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common and lethal malignant tumors worldwide. Over the past 15 years, the incidence of HCC has more than doubled. Due to late diagnosis and/or advanced underlying liver cirrhosis, only limited treatment options with marginal clinical benefit are available in up to 70% of patients. During the last decades, no effective conventional cytotoxic systemic therapy was available contributing to the dismal prognosis in patients with HCC. A better knowledge of molecular hepatocarcinogenesis provides today the opportunity for targeted therapy.
Materials and methods:
A search of the literature was made using cancer literature, the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS) database for the following keywords: "hepatocellular carcinoma," "molecular hepatocarcinogenesis," "targeted therapy," and "immunotherapy."
Discussion and conclusion:
Treatment decisions are complex and dependent upon tumor staging, presence of portal hypertension, and the underlying degree of liver dysfunction. The knowledge of molecular hepatocarcinogenesis broadened the horizon for patients with advanced HCC. During the last years, several molecular targeted agents have been evaluated in clinical trials in advanced HCC. In the future, new therapeutic options will be represented by a blend of immunotherapy-like vaccines and T-cell modulators, supplemented by molecularly targeted inhibitors of tumor signaling pathways.
BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014:203693. DOI:10.1155/2014/203693 · 2.71 Impact Factor
- "Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that can prolong progression-free survival and overall survival of the cancer patient, has been used in advanced HCC patients for more than 5 years. However, only a small percentage of patients exhibited partial or complete response ,  and the majority of the patients appeared to be drug resistant after receiving six months of treatment. Another limitation for sorafenib is variable side-effects in greater than 80% of patients. "
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Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, associated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance, recurrence and metastasis. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can increase tissue oxygen pressure and content to prevent the resistance, recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Presently, Sorafenib is a first-line drug, targeted for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but effective in only a small portion of patients and can induce hypoxia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of HBO in combination with sorafenib on hepatoma cells.
Hepatoma cell lines (BEL-7402 and SK-Hep1) were treated with HBO at 2 atmosphere absolute pressure for 80 min per day or combined with sorafenib or cisplatin. At different time points, cells were tested for cell growth, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle and migration. Finally, miRNA from the hepatoma cells was detected by microRNA array and validated by qRT-PCR.
Although HBO, sorafenib or cisplatin alone could inhibit growth of hepatoma cells, HBO combined with sorafenib or cisplatin resulted in much greater synergistic growth inhibition (cell proliferation and colony formation) in hepatoma cells. Similarly, the synergistic effect of HBO and sorafenib on induction of apoptosis was also observed in hepatoma cells. HBO induced G1 arrest in SK-Hep1 not in BEL-7402 cells, but enhanced cell cycle arrest induced by sorafenib in BEL-7402 treated cells. However, HBO had no obvious effect on the migration of hepatoma cells, and microRNA array analysis showed that hepatoma cells with HBO treatment had significantly different microRNA expression profiles from those with blank control.
We show for the first time that HBO combined with sorafenib results in synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis in hepatoma cells, suggesting a potential application of HBO combined with sorafenib in HCC patients. Additionally, we also show that HBO significantly altered microRNA expression in hepatoma cells.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e100814. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0100814 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The development of hepatocellular carcinomas from malignant hepatocytes is frequently associated with intra- and peritumoral accumulation of connective tissue arising from activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC). Inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling showed promise in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of RTK inhibitors on the tumor supportive cells. We performed in vitro experiments to study whether Sunitinib, a Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) RTKs' inhibitor, could block both activated HSC functions and angiogenesis and thus prevent the progression of cirrhotic liver to hepatocellular carcinoma. In immortalized human activated HSC LX-2, treatment with Sunitinib 100nM blocked collagen synthesis by 47%, as assessed by Sirius Red staining, attenuated HSC contraction by 65%, and reduced cell migration by 28% as evaluated using a Boyden's Chamber, without affecting cell viability, measured by Trypan blue staining, and apoptosis, measured by Propidium Iodide (PI) incorporation assay. Our data revealed that Sunitinib treatment blocked the transdifferentiation of primary human HSC (hHSC) to activated myofibroblast-like cells by 65% without affecting hHSC apoptosis and migration. In in vitro angiogenic assays, Sunitinib 100nM reduced Endothelial Cells (EC) ring formation by 46% and tube formation by 68%, and decreased vascular sprouting in aorta ring assay and angiogenesis in vascular bed of chick embryo. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that the RTK inhibitor Sunitinib blocks the activation of HSC and angiogenesis suggesting its potential as a drug candidate in pathological conditions like liver fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.
European journal of pharmacology 02/2013; 705(1-3). DOI:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.02.026 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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