[Assessment of a set of FRAX(®)-based criteria for the indication of bone densitometry in Spanish postmenopausal women.]
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of the application in routine clinical practice of a proposal of thresholds for the indication of bone densitometry in Spanish postmenopausal women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We determined the risk of major fracture (RMF) by FRAX(®) of the patients referred to a bone densitometry unit from Primary Care who were untreated. We calculated how many scans would have been avoided if they had been performed only to women≥65 years with a RMF<10% or women<65 years with a RMF≥3.6%. RESULTS: We included 643 women with a mean age of 61 (9) years. Twenty-three percent had a normal bone mineral density, 56% had osteopenia, and 21% osteoporosis. The RMF was 5.9 (5.5)%. Eighty of 217 (37%) bone scans in women≥65 years and 273 of 426 (64%) in women<65 years would have been avoided. As a whole, 55% of the scans would have been avoided. The sensitivity of the threshold of 3.6% of RMF for the diagnosis of osteoporosis was 51%, specificity 68%, positive predictive value 20%, and negative predictive value 20%. CONCLUSIONS: The application of the proposed thresholds for the indication of bone densitometry in Spanish postmenopausal women, based on age and risk of fracture calculated by FRAX(®) would result in a significant decrease of the activity of the bone densitometry unit.
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ABSTRACT: Most estimates of osteoporosis in older U.S. adults have been based on its occurrence in white women, even though it is known to affect men and minority women. In the present study, we used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of femoral bone mineral density (BMD) from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) to estimate the overall scope of the disease in the older U.S. population. Specifically, we estimate prevalences of low femoral BMD in women 50 years and older and explore different approaches for defining low BMD in older men in that age range. Low BMD levels were defined in accordance with an approach proposed by an expert panel of the World Health Organization and used BMD data from 382 non-Hispanic white (NHW) men or 409 NHW women ages 20-29 years from the NHANES III dataset. For women, estimates indicate 13-18%, or 4-6 million, have osteoporosis (i.e., BMD > 2.5 standard deviations [SD] below the mean of young NHW women) and 37-50%, or 13-17 million, have osteopenia (BMD between 1 and 2.5 SD below the mean of young NHW women). For men, these numbers depend on the gender of the reference group used to define cutoff values. When based on male cutoffs, 3-6% (1-2-million) of men have osteoporosis and 28-47% (8-13 million) have osteopenia; when based on female cutoffs, 1-4% (280,000-1 million) have osteoporosis and 15-33% (4-9 million) have osteopenia. Most of the older U.S. adults with low femur BMD are women, but, regardless of which cutoffs are used, the number of men is substantial.Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 12/1997; 12(11):1761-8. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to generate standard curves for bone mineral density (BMD) in a Spanish population using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at both lumbar spine and femoral neck sites. The total sample size was 2442 subjects of both sexes aged 20-80 years, stratified according to survival rates, demographic distribution by local regions and sex ratio in the Spanish population. Subjects with suspected conditions affecting bone metabolism or receiving any treatment affecting bone mineralization were excluded. The study was carried out in 14 hospitals and bone density measurements were performed, using a QDR/ 1000 Hologic device. In the female population, the highest value for lumbar spine BMD was found within the 30-39 years age group, being significantly lower after the age of 49 years. In the male population, the highest values for lumbar spine BMD are found one decade earlier than in the female population and become significantly lower after the age of 69 years. The highest values for femoral neck BMD in men and women was found in the 20-29 year age group. Values for femoral neck BMD in the female population become statistically lower after the age of 49 years, while in the male population this effect was seen after the age of 69 years. Values for femoral neck BMD were higher in men than women at all ages.Osteoporosis International 02/1997; 7(1):59-64. · 4.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether computed digital absorptiometry (CDA) of the hand might be a useful screening technique for identifying patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis and to compare the results of CDA with those of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck. We studied 230 postmenopausal women (mean age 58.4 + 7.9 years). For CDA, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with an AccuDEXA Schick densitometer in the third middle phalanx of the nondominant hand. For DXA, BMD of the lumbar spine and upper femur was assessed using a DXA Hologic QDR-1000 densitometer. We did a comparative analysis (ANOVA) and linear correlation tests. Sensitivity and specificity of CDA and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for the diagnosis of osteoporosis were calculated. The mean BMD with CDA was 0.445 +/- 0.084 (T-score: -1.27 +/- 1.29). The mean BMD (g/cm2) with DXA at the lumbar spine was 0.877 +/- 0.166 (T-score: -1.52 +/- 1.59) and 0.708 +/- 0.127 at the femoral neck (T-score: -1.12 +/- 1.25). BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck correlated positively with CDA of the hand (r = 0.66 and r = 0.65 respectively, p<0.001). When using as cut-off a T-score of -2.5, according to WHO criteria, 76 women (33%) had osteoporosis of the lumbar spine and/or femoral neck with DXA and 42 (18%) with CDA (p<0.001). The kappa score for osteoporosis was 0.33 for CDA versus spinal DXA and 0.35 for CDA versus femoral DXA. With the cut-off level used, sensitivity and specificity of CDA in detecting osteoporosis at the lumbar spine were 0.39 and 0.90, respectively; sensitivity and specificity of CDA in identifying osteoporosis at the femoral neck were 0.58 and 0.87, respectively. The positive predictive value of CDA for osteoporosis was 69% and the negative predictive value was 75%. The area under the ROC curve for osteoporosis was 0.822 +/- 0.028. We conclude that: (a) CDA assessment has a moderate correlation with BMD measured by DXA at the lumbar spine and femoral neck; (b) CDA has a low sensitivity for the diagnosis of osteoporosis compared with spinal and femoral DXA; and (c) predictive values for osteoporosis at both the lumbar spine and femoral neck are acceptable.Osteoporosis International 02/2001; 12(7):565-9. · 4.04 Impact Factor