Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in health and disease

Division of Cancer Research, Medical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, UK.
Trends in Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 9.45). 05/2012; 18(6):337-47. DOI: 10.1016/j.molmed.2012.04.003
Source: PubMed


Glucosinolates and isothiocyanates have both been objects of research for more than half a century. Interest in these unique phytochemicals escalated following the discovery that sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from broccoli, potently induces mammalian cytoprotective proteins through the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway. In parallel with the advances in understanding the molecular regulation of this pathway and its critical role in protection against electrophiles and oxidants, there have been increased efforts toward translating this knowledge to improve human health and combat disease. This review focuses on the animal studies demonstrating the beneficial effects of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates in models of carcinogenesis, and cardiovascular and neurological diseases, as well as on the intervention studies of their safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy in humans.

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Available from: Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Apr 26, 2014
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    • "Besides glucosinolates , broccoli sprouts are rich in phenolic acids, vitamins (A, C, E, and K), and minerals, making this food an interesting source of healthy compounds (West et al., 2004). Previous work supported the anti-cancer properties of SFN, by in vitro and in vivo studies with humans and animals (Clarke, Dashwood, & Ho, 2008; Dinkova-Kostova, & Kostov, 2012). Additionally, natural antioxidants such as vitamin C, also found in broccoli sprouts, have been related to the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress (Holt et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Current evidence supports the positive association between the consumption of plant foods and health. In this work, we assessed the effect of consuming a half-serving (30 g) or one serving (60 g) of broccoli sprouts on the urinary concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress (isoprostanes) and inflammation (prostaglandins and thromboxanes). Twenty-four volunteers participated in the project. A quantitative determination of sulforaphane and its mercapturic derivatives, eicosanoids, and total vitamin C in urine was performed. The intake of broccoli sprouts produced an increase in the urinary concentrations of sulforaphane metabolites and vitamin C. Among the 13 eicosanoids analysed, tetranor-PGEM and 11β-PGF2α as well as 11-dehydro-TXB2 showed a significant decrease in their urinary concentrations after the ingestion of broccoli sprouts. Therefore, the consumption of broccoli sprouts modulated the excretion of biomarkers linked to inflammation and vascular reactions without exerting a significant influence on the oxidation of phospholipids in vivo.
    Food Chemistry 04/2015; 173:1187-1194. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.152 · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    • "Rocket salad (Eruca sativa) is a vegetable considered as a good source of glucosinolates, phenolic compounds [1] and unsaturated fatty acids [2]. The potential beneficial effects of such natural products , with respect to several diseases (cancer, cardiovascular and neurological diseases) have been recently reported [3] [4]. Indeed, some of the health promoting and cancer chemoprotective activity of E. sativa and the other cruciferous vegetables is widely believed to be associated to their content of minor dietary components such as glucosinolates [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Supercritical fluid extraction from freeze-dried Eruca sativa leaves is assessed with the aim of studying the feasibility to obtain bioactive enriched fractions containing different classes of valuable compounds. Total extraction yields and compositions using pure CO2 and CO2+selected co-solvents are compared. Overall extraction curves, fitted by the model of broken and intact cells developed by Sovová, are reported and the influence of the main parameters that affect the extraction process is analysed. The extract with the highest content in glucosinolates and phenols was collected at 30 MPa and 75°C using 8% (w/w) of water with respect to the CO2 flow rate, whereas the fraction richest in lipids was obtained using 8% (w/w) of ethanol as co-solvent at 45°C and 30 MPa. A process including a first step with supercritical CO2 extraction using water as co-solvent followed by a second step, where a fraction rich in lipids is extracted using ethanol as co-solvent, is proposed. SCCO2 results are compared with Soxhlet and other methods that combine organic solvents with ultrasounds.
    Journal of Supercritical Fluids The 10/2014; 94:245–251. DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2014.08.022 · 2.37 Impact Factor
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    • "The numerous effects exhibited by these natural compounds through which they exerted a protective action against cancer progression [9] and neurodegenerative disease were recently reported [10] [11] [12]. Glucomoringin (GMG; 4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl GL), a typical secondary metabolite present in large amount in seeds of M. oleifera [13], is an uncommon member of the GLs family and presents a unique characteristic consisting in a second glycosidic residue in its side chain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glucomoringin (4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl glucosinolate) (GMG) is an uncommon member of glucosinolate group belonging to the Moringaceae family, of which Moringa oleifera Lam. is the most widely distributed. Bioactivation of GMG with the enzyme myrosinase forms the corresponding isothiocyanate (4(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl isothiocyanate) (GMG-ITC), which can play a key role in antitumoral activity and counteract the inflammatory response. Aim of this study was to assess the effect of GMG-ITC treatment in an experimental mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease with neurodegeneration characterized by demyelinating plaques, neuronal, and axonal loss. For this reason, C57Bl/6 male mice were injected with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55 which is able to evoke an autoimmune response against myelin fibers miming human multiple sclerosis physiopatogenesis. clearly showed that the treatment was able to counteract the inflammatory cascade that underlies the processes leading to severe MS. In particular, GMG-ITC was effective against proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α. Oxidative species generation including the influence of iNOS, nitrotyrosine tissue expression and cell apoptotic death pathway were also evaluated resulting in a lower Bax/Bcl-2 unbalance. Taken together, this work adds new interesting properties and applicability of GMG-ITC and this compound can be suggested as a useful drug for the treatment or prevention of MS, at least in association with current conventional therapy.
    Fitoterapia 03/2014; 95. DOI:10.1016/j.fitote.2014.03.018 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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