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    ABSTRACT: The lymphatic vasculature plays a critical role in a number of disease conditions of increasing prevalence, such as autoimmune disorders, obesity, blood vascular diseases, and cancer metastases. Yet, unlike the blood vasculature, the tools available to interrogate the molecular basis of lymphatic dysfunction/disease have been lacking. More recently, investigators have reported that dysregulation of the PI3K pathway is involved in syndromic human diseases that involve abnormal lymphatic vasculatures, but there have been few compelling results that show the direct association of this molecular pathway with lymphatic dysfunction in humans. Using near-infrared fluorescence lymphatic imaging (NIRFLI) to phenotype and next generation sequencing (NGS) for unbiased genetic discovery in a family with non-syndromic lymphatic disease, we discovered a rare, novel mutation in INPPL1 that encodes the protein SHIP2, which is a negative regulator of the PI3K pathway, to be associated with lymphatic dysfunction in the family. In vitro interrogation shows that SHIP2 is directly associated with impairment of normal lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) behavior and that SHIP2 associates with receptors that are associated in lymphedema, implicating its direct involvement in the lymphatic vasculature.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e112548. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fluid mosaic model of Singer and Nicolson correctly predicted that the plasma membrane (PM) forms a lipid bi-layer containing many integral trans-membrane proteins. This model also suggested that most of these proteins were randomly dispersed and freely diffusing moieties. Initially, this view of a dynamic and rather unorganized membrane was supported by early observations of the cell surfaces using the light microscope. However, recent studies on the PM below the diffraction limit of visible light (~ 250 nm) revealed that, at nanoscale dimensions, membranes are highly organized and compartmentalized structures. Lymphocytes are particularly useful to study this nanoscale membrane organization because they grow as single cells and are not permanently engaged in cell:cell contacts within a tissue that can influence membrane organization. In this review, we describe the methods that can be used to better study the protein:protein interaction and nanoscale organization of lymphocyte membrane proteins, with a focus on the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Furthermore, we discuss the factors that may generate and maintain these membrane structures.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 11/2014; · 4.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder that results in low bone mineral density and brittle bones. Most cases result from dominant mutations in the type I procollagen genes, but mutations in a growing number of genes have been identified that produce autosomal recessive forms of the disease. Among these include mutations in the genes SERPINH1 and FKBP10 which encode the type I procollagen chaperones HSP47 and FKBP65, respectively, and predominantly produce a moderately severe form of OI. Little is known about the biochemical consequences of the mutations and how they produce OI. We have identified a new OI mutation in SERPINH1 that results in destabilization and mislocalization of HSP47, and secondarily has similar effects on FKBP65. We found evidence that HSP47 and FKBP65 act cooperatively during posttranslational maturation of type I procollagen and that FKBP65 and HSP47, but fail to properly interact in mutant HSP47 cells. These results thus reveal a common cellular pathway in cases of OI caused by HSP47 and FKBP65 deficiency. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Human Molecular Genetics 12/2014; · 7.69 Impact Factor

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May 20, 2014