In vitro modulation of oxidative burst via release of reactive oxygen species from immune cells by extracts of selected tropical medicinal herbs and food plants
ABSTRACT To evaluate in vitro immunomodulating properties and potential cytotoxicity of six tropical medicinal herbs and food plants namely Antidesma madagascariense (Euphorbiaceae) (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum (Erythroxylaceae) (EM), Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF), Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT).
Initially, the crude water and methanol extracts were probed for their capacity to trigger immune cells' NADPH oxidase and MPO-dependent activities as measured by lucigenin- and luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, respectively; as compared to receptor-dependent (serum opsonised zymosan- OPZ) or receptor-independent phorbol myristerate acetate (PMA).
Preliminary screening on whole human blood oxidative burst activity showed significant and concentration-dependent immunomodulating properties of three plants AM, FF and OT. Further investigations of the fractions on isolated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mice monocytes using two different pathways for activation of phagocytic oxidative burst showed that ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent extract. None of the active samples had cell-death effects on human PMNs, under the assay conditions as determined by the trypan-blue exclusion assay. Since PMA and OPZ NADPH oxidase complex is activated via different transduction pathways, these results suggest that AM, FF and OT does not affect a specific transductional pathway, but rather directly inhibit a final common biochemical target such as the NADPH oxidase enzyme and/or scavenges ROS.
Our findings suggest that some of these plants extracts/fractions were able to modulate significantly immune response of phagocytes and monocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new natural alternative immunomodulatory agents.
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ABSTRACT: Several plants of the Mauritian flora alleged to possess anti-infective properties were studied against different strains of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The grounded dried plant materials were extracted with different extractants and screened for anti-microbial activity using the disk diffusion and the micro-dilution techniques. Preliminary screening revealed that the methanol extracts were most active. Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus subtilis were the three test organisms, which were found to be susceptible to all the crude methanolic extracts of the different plants investigated (100% susceptibility), followed by Escherichia coli (57.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (57.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (28.6%). The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration recorded for the different crude methanol extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Enterobacter cloacae, Bacillus subtilis and the mould fungus Candida albicans were 500, 1000, 125, 250, 1000 and 125 g/ml, respectively. Bioautography using Cladosporium cucumerinum revealed that dichloromethane (DCM) extracts had the highest activity against the phytopathogenic fungus. It was also noted that the DCM extracts of Michelia champaca and Antidesma madagascariense yielded the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum. Activity of the different crude extracts was also investigated against several phytopathogenic filamentous fungi, Colletotrichum glocosporoides, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotium, Guignardia sp. and Fusarium oxysporum. It was found that crude hexane extracts as well as crude DCM extracts exhibited marked activity against several strains of fungi, especially Colletotrichum glocosporoides, Sclerotinia sclerotium and Guignardia sp.
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ABSTRACT: We investigated a physiological function by fermenting a medicinal mushroom, (Cudrania tricuspidata fruit). A fermentation using lactic acid bacteria and the extracts isolated from 70% ethanol fractionation was included in cultured mouse spleen cells for cytokine secretion. As a result, total polyphenol content improved by 47% by organic acid fermentation. This was regarded as immune activity in fermented C. tricuspidata fruits, as the levels of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 secretion increased. In addition, when the extracts were treated with a stimulant lipopolysaccharide, the secretion of helper T (Th) 1 cytokines IL-2, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor- was suppressed, while the secretion of Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10 significantly increased. Therefore, this study suggests that fermentative C. tricuspidata fruit extracts can contribute to the suppression of cellular immune reactions induced by the expression of Th1 cells and activation of the expression of Th2 cells inducing humoral immune reactions associated with the antibody generation by B lymphocytes.05/2013; 23(5). DOI:10.5352/JLS.2013.23.5.682
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ABSTRACT: Background: Numerous plants in traditional practices of medicine have been used to treat cognitive disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other memory related disorders. Materials and Methods: We present here the evaluation of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous methanol extracts of five traditional medicinal plants. Citrullus colocynthis, Emex spinosa, Rhazya stricta, Scrophularia hypericifolia and Caylusea hexagyna extracts were tested for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effect ant their antioxidant effect at different concentrations. Results: Citrullus colocynthis and Emex spinosa inhibited acetylthiocholinesterase at 400 µg/ ml by 83.54 and 81.92%. Emex spinosa and Scrophularia hypericifolia produced the maximum effect as DPPH radical scavenger (IC 50= 10.89 and 11.88µg/ ml, respectively). Scrophularia hypericifolia showed the highest effect as superoxide radical scavenger (IC 50= 20.83 µg/ ml)also it produced the highest ability to scavenge hydrogenperoxide radicals (IC 50 = 8.66 µg/ ml) while Emex spinosa and Caylusea hexagyna showed least IC 50 for ferrous ion chelation (IC 50 ≈15 µg/ ml) with powerful reduction capability. Conclusion:The determined antioxidant properties magnified the total antioxidant effect determined by ABTS assay that completely inhibited lipidperoxidation at 200 µg/ ml.