In vitro modulation of oxidative burst via release of reactive oxygen species from immune cells by extracts of selected tropical medicinal herbs and food plants.
ABSTRACT To evaluate in vitro immunomodulating properties and potential cytotoxicity of six tropical medicinal herbs and food plants namely Antidesma madagascariense (Euphorbiaceae) (AM), Erythroxylum macrocarpum (Erythroxylaceae) (EM), Faujasiopsis flexuosa (Asteraceae) (FF), Pittosporum senacia (Pittosporaceae) (PS), Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) (MC) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) (OT).
Initially, the crude water and methanol extracts were probed for their capacity to trigger immune cells' NADPH oxidase and MPO-dependent activities as measured by lucigenin- and luminol-amplified chemiluminescence, respectively; as compared to receptor-dependent (serum opsonised zymosan- OPZ) or receptor-independent phorbol myristerate acetate (PMA).
Preliminary screening on whole human blood oxidative burst activity showed significant and concentration-dependent immunomodulating properties of three plants AM, FF and OT. Further investigations of the fractions on isolated human polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mice monocytes using two different pathways for activation of phagocytic oxidative burst showed that ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent extract. None of the active samples had cell-death effects on human PMNs, under the assay conditions as determined by the trypan-blue exclusion assay. Since PMA and OPZ NADPH oxidase complex is activated via different transduction pathways, these results suggest that AM, FF and OT does not affect a specific transductional pathway, but rather directly inhibit a final common biochemical target such as the NADPH oxidase enzyme and/or scavenges ROS.
Our findings suggest that some of these plants extracts/fractions were able to modulate significantly immune response of phagocytes and monocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new natural alternative immunomodulatory agents.
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ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and its metabolites have been shown to exert complex effects on the cardiac muscle during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion. The aim of the present study, by perfusing H(2)O(2) or/and different scavengers of oxygen free radicals (OFRs) into the human atrium, is to characterize the electropharmacological effects of H(2)O(2) and explore its possible underlying mechanism. Atrial tissues obtained from the heart of 19 patients undergoing corrective cardiac surgery were used. Transmembrane action potentials were recorded using the conventional microelectrode technique, and contraction of atrial fibers was evaluated in normal [K](o) (4 mM) in the absence and presence of tested agents. H(2)O(2) (30 micro M-3 mM) had a biphasic effect on the contractile force (an increase, followed by a decrease), reduced the 0-phase depolarizing slope (dV/dt), and prolonged the action potential duration (APD) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, even at a concentration as high as 3 mM, H(2)O(2) did not influence diastolic membrane potential (DMP). Pretreatment with N-(mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (N-MPG), a specific scavenger of the. OH free radical, significantly blocked the 3 mM H(2)O(2)-induced electromechanical changes, while the pretreatment with L-methionine (L-M), a specific scavenger of HOCl free radical, did not. Our data suggests that the toxic effects of H(2)O(2) are caused mainly through the generation of. OH, which is attributed to the electropharmacological inhibitory effects seen in the human atrium.Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 02/2003; 91(1):53-60. · 2.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AOPP-induced activation of human neutrophil and monocyte oxidative metabolism: A potential target forN-acetylcysteine treatment in dialysis patients. Oxidative stress largely contributes to hemodialysis-associated lethal complications, thus explaining the urgent need of antioxidant-based therapeutic strategies in hemodialysis patients. We previously identified advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in the uremic plasma as exquisite markers of oxidative stress and potent mediators of monocyte activation. The present study was aimed at searching whether (1) AOPP can also trigger activation of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), and (2) whether AOPP-induced activation could be inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a widely used compound which has been shown to prevent oxidative injury to kidney. Both human serum albumin (HAS) AOPP (i.e., HOCl-modified HSA in vitro preparations and AOPP extracted from plasma of hemodialysis patients) were tested for their capacity to trigger phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-dependent activities as measured by lucigenin- and luminol-amplified chemiluminescence (CL), respectively, as compared to receptor-dependent [opsonized zymosan or receptor-independent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)]. The effect of PMN priming by platelet-activating factor (PAF), and the effect of NAC on normal monocyte and on normal or hemodialysis patient's (N = 16) PMN oxidative responses were compared. HSA-AOPP triggered in a HOCl dose-dependent manner both NADPH-oxidase- and MPO-dependent CL of PMN. This latter was further enhanced by PAF priming. Plasma-derived AOPP obtained from hemodialysis patients also triggered PMN respiratory burst. NAC significantly reduced HSA-AOPP-mediated responses of normal monocyte and of normal and uremic PMN but had no significant effect on opsonized zymosan- or PMA-induced CL responses. This dual potential of NAC to inhibit phagocyte oxidative responses induced by HSA-AOPP without affecting those mediated by compounds mimicking pathogens supports the proposal of a therapeutic trial with NAC aimed at reducing oxidative stress-related inflammation in hemodialysis patients.Kidney International 08/2003; 64(1):82-91. · 7.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The activity of a crude ethanol extract of green propolis and its fractions obtained by partition with hexane, chloroform and n-butanol was assessed on luminol- and lucigenin- enhanced chemiluminescence (CL) produced by rabbit neutrophils (PMNs) stimulated with particles of serum-opsonized zymosan (OZ). The total production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by PMNs was measured by the luminol-enhanced CL (LumCL) assay and the production of the superoxide anion (O2*-) by the lucigenin-enhanced CL (LucCL) assay. All evaluated propolis samples had inhibitory effect on the LumCL and LucCL, which was concentration dependent. The n-butanol and chloroform fractions displayed the highest inhibitory effect on the LumCL produced by PMNs stimulated with OZ, in comparison with both the ethanol extract and the hexane fraction. Besides, the hexane fraction was the one which presented the highest effect for the LucCL assay. Some isolated compounds from both n-butanol and chloroform fractions were also assessed, including kaempferide, isosakuranetin, aromadendrine-4'-methyl-ether and 3-prenyl-p-coumaric acid. Kaempferide presented the highest inhibitory effect on the LumCL in comparison with the other compounds. Moreover, under the conditions assessed, the studied green propolis samples and isolated compounds were not toxic to the rabbit PMNs.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2004; 94(1):59-65. · 2.76 Impact Factor