Use of analgesic, anesthetic, and sedative medications during pediatric hospitalizations in the United States 2008.
ABSTRACT The wide need for analgesia, anesthesia, and sedation in children and the lack of pediatric labeling leads to widespread off-label use of medications for pain and sedation in children. Any attempt to address the lack of labeling will require national estimates of the numbers of children using each medication, their ages, and other factors, to understand the overall use of these medications. We describe use of analgesics, anesthetics, and sedatives in pediatric inpatients by result of conducting a statistical analysis of medication data from >800,000 pediatric hospitalizations in the United States. The purpose was to provide national estimates for the percentage of hospitalized children receiving specific analgesics, anesthetics, and sedatives and their use by age group.
Data from the Premier Database, the largest hospital-based, service-level comparative database in the country, were used. We identified all uses of a given medication, selected the first use for each child, and calculated the prevalence of use of specific medications among hospitalized children in 2008 as the number of hospitalizations in which the drug was used per 100 hospitalizations. Dose and number of doses were not considered in these analyses.
The dataset contained records for 877,201 hospitalizations of children younger than 18 years of age at the time of admission. Thirty-three medications and an additional 11 combinations were administered in this population, including nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, local and regional anesthetics, opioids, benzodiazepines, sedative-hypnotics, barbiturates, and others. The 10 most frequently administered analgesic, anesthetic, or sedative medications used in this population were acetaminophen (14.7%), lidocaine (11.0%), fentanyl (6.6%), ibuprofen (6.3%), morphine (6.2%), midazolam (4.5%), propofol (4.1%), lidocaine/prilocaine (2.5%), hydrocodone/acetaminophen (2.1%), and acetaminophen/codeine (2.0%). Use changed with age, and the direction of change (increases and decreases) and the type of change (linear, u-shaped, or other) appeared to be specific to each drug.
A variety of drug classes and individual medications were used to manage pain and sedation in hospitalized children. The variation in patterns of use reflects the heterogeneity of the dataset, comprising a wide range of ages and conditions in which analgesia, anesthesia, and sedation might be required. It was not possible to assess whether use of a specific medication was clinically appropriate, except to note use of medications in age subgroups without pediatric labeling.
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ABSTRACT: The use of sedative and analgesic medications is directly linked to patient outcomes. The practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications deserves further exploration. We hypothesized that important variations exist in the practice of administering as-needed medications in the intensive care unit (ICU). We aimed to determine the influence of time of day on the practice of administering as-needed sedative or analgesic medications to children in the ICU. Medication administration records of patients admitted to our pediatric cardiovascular ICU during a 4-month period were reviewed to determine the frequency and timing of as-needed medication usage by shift. A total of 152 ICU admissions (1854 patient days) were reviewed. A significantly greater number of as-needed doses were administered during the night shift (fentanyl, P = .005; lorazepam, P = .03; midazolam, P = .0003; diphenhydramine, P = .0003; and chloral hydrate, P = .0006). These differences remained statistically significant after excluding doses given during the first 6 hours after cardiovascular surgery. Morphine administration was similar between shifts (P = .08). We identified a pattern of increased administration of as-needed sedative or analgesic medications during nights. Further research is needed to identify the underlying causes of this practice variation.AACN Advanced Critical Care 01/2014; 25(2):114-8. DOI:10.1097/NCI.0000000000000023
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ABSTRACT: Summary The development of analgesic interventions in paediatric surgical patients is often limited by the inherent difficulties of conducting large randomized clinical trials to test interventions in those patients. Regional anaesthesia is a valid strategy to improve postoperative pain in the adult surgical population, but the effects of regional anaesthesia on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric patients are currently not well defined. The main objective of the current review was to systematically evaluate the use of regional anaesthesia techniques to minimize postoperative pain in paediatric patients. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of the regional anaesthesia techniques on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric surgical patients' procedures. Seventy-three studies on 5125 paediatric patients were evaluated. Only few surgical procedures had more than one small randomized controlled trial favouring the use of regional anaesthesia to minimize postoperative pain (ophthalmological surgery, cleft lip repair, inguinal hernia, and urological procedures). Additional evidence is required to support the use of specific regional anaesthesia techniques to improve postoperative pain for several surgical procedures (craniectomy, adenotonsillectomy, appendectomy, cardiac surgery, umbilical hernia repair, upper and lower extremity) in paediatric patients. Currently, only a very limited number of regional anaesthesia techniques have demonstrated significant improvement on postoperative pain outcomes for a restricted number of surgical procedures. More studies are needed in order to establish regional anaesthesia as a valid strategy to improve analgesia in the paediatric surgical population.BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 06/2014; 113(3). DOI:10.1093/bja/aeu156 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Appropriate use of opioids is essential to manage moderate-to-severe pain in children safely and effectively, yet published guidance regarding opioid treatment for pediatric patients is limited, potentially resulting in excessive variation in opioid use in pediatric patients across hospitals in the U.S. To evaluate hospital variation in opioid use in pediatric inpatients. Using data from the Pediatric Health Information System and the Premier Perspective Database regarding all pediatric inpatients in 626 hospitals, we examined hospital variation in opioid use and length of opioid use, adjusting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, and for hospital type (children's versus general) and hospital patient volume, using multilevel generalized linear regression modeling. Overall, 41.2% of all pediatric hospitalizations were exposed to opioids. Among the exposed patients, the mean length of exposure was 4.6 days. Exposure proportion and exposure length varied substantially across hospitals, even after accounting for patient demographic and clinical characteristics, hospital type and hospital patient volume, especially among terminal hospitalizations. For patients discharged alive versus died, the adjusted exposure percentage for each hospital ranged from 0.7 to 99.1% (interquartile range (IQR): 35.3, 59.9%) versus 0.1-100.0% (IQR: 29.2, 66.2%), and the adjusted exposure length ranged from 1.0 to 8.4 days (IQR: 2.2, 2.7) versus 0.9 to 35.2 days (IQR: 4.0, 7.4). The substantial hospital-level variation in opioid use in pediatric inpatients suggests room for improvement in clinical practice.Journal of pain and symptom management 04/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2013.12.241 · 2.42 Impact Factor