Directed evolution of proteins for increased stability and expression using yeast display.
ABSTRACT The expression of recombinant proteins incorporated into the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast surface display) is an important tool for protein engineering and library screening applications. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art yeast display techniques used for stability engineering of proteins including antibody fragments and immunoglobulin-like molecules. The paper discusses assets and drawbacks of stability engineering using the correlation between expression density on the yeast surface and thermal stability with respect to the quality control system in yeast. Additionally, strategies based on heat incubation of surface displayed protein libraries for selection of stabilized variants are reported including a recently developed method that allows stabilization of proteins of already high intrinsic thermal stability like IgG1-Fc.
- SourceAvailable from: Roslyn M Bill[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Several host systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell-lines. This article highlights the benefits of using yeast, especially for more challenging targets such as membrane proteins. On account of the wide range of molecular, genetic, and microbiological tools available, use of the well-studied model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provides many opportunities to optimize the functional yields of a target protein. Despite this wealth of resources, it is surprisingly under-used. In contrast, Pichia pastoris, a relative new-comer as a host organism, is already becoming a popular choice, particularly because of the ease with which high biomass (and hence recombinant protein) yields can be achieved. In the last few years, advances have been made in understanding how a yeast cell responds to the stress of producing a recombinant protein and how this information can be used to identify improved host strains in order to increase functional yields. Given these advantages, and their industrial importance in the production of biopharmaceuticals, I argue that S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris should be considered at an early stage in any serious strategy to produce proteins.Frontiers in Microbiology 01/2014; 5:85. · 3.90 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Directed evolution has become a well-established tool for improving proteins and biological systems. A critical aspect of directed evolution is the selection of a suitable host organism for achieving functional expression of the target gene. To date, most directed evolution studies have used either Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a host; however, other bacterial and yeast species, as well as mammalian and insect cell lines, have also been successfully used. Recent advances in synthetic biology and genomics have opened the possibility of expanding the use of directed evolution to new host organisms such as microalgae. This review focuses on the different host organisms used in directed evolution and highlights some of the recent directed evolution strategies used in these organisms.Computational and structural biotechnology journal. 01/2012; 2:e201209012.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An Fcab (Fc antigen binding) is a crystallizable fragment of IgG having C-terminal structural loops of CH3 domains engineered for antigen binding. Since introduction of novel binding sites might impair the immunoglobulin fold, repairing strategies are needed for improving the biophysical properties of promising binders without decreasing affinity to the antigen. Here, a directed evolution protocol was developed and applied for stabilization of a Her2/neu-binding Fcab. Distinct loop regions of the parental binder were softly randomized by parsimonious mutagenesis, followed by heat incubation of the yeast displayed protein library and selection for retained antigen binding. Selected Fcabs were expressed solubly in Pichia pastoris and human embryonic kidney 293 cells and characterized. Fcab clones that retained their affinity to Her2/neu but exhibited a significantly increased conformational stability and resistance to aggregation could be evolved. Moreover, we demonstrate that simultaneous selection for binding to the antigen and to structurally specific ligands (FcγRI and an antibody directed against the CH2 domain) yields even more stable Fcabs. To sum up, this study presents a very potent and generally applicable method for improving the fold and stability of antibodies, antibody fragments and alternative binding scaffolds.Protein Engineering Design and Selection 12/2012; · 2.59 Impact Factor