The expression of recombinant proteins incorporated into the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast surface display) is an important tool for protein engineering and library screening applications. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art yeast display techniques used for stability engineering of proteins including antibody fragments and immunoglobulin-like molecules. The paper discusses assets and drawbacks of stability engineering using the correlation between expression density on the yeast surface and thermal stability with respect to the quality control system in yeast. Additionally, strategies based on heat incubation of surface displayed protein libraries for selection of stabilized variants are reported including a recently developed method that allows stabilization of proteins of already high intrinsic thermal stability like IgG1-Fc.
"each other: (i) optimizing the corresponding gene sequence so it is more likely to be stably expressed and (ii) minimizing the metabolic burden on the chosen host cell(s) during recombinant protein production (Bonander and Bill, 2012). The first strategy may require that a mutant protein is produced; in support of this protein engineering approach there is an extensive literature on engineering stabilized proteins (Traxlmayr and Obinger, 2012; Scott et al., 2013). Codon optimization is also possible (Oberg et al., 2011) with more recent insights suggesting how this might aid functional expression (Halliday and Mallucci, 2014). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several host systems are available for the production of recombinant proteins, ranging from Escherichia coli to mammalian cell-lines. This article highlights the benefits of using yeast, especially for more challenging targets such as membrane proteins. On account of the wide range of molecular, genetic, and microbiological tools available, use of the well-studied model organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, provides many opportunities to optimize the functional yields of a target protein. Despite this wealth of resources, it is surprisingly under-used. In contrast, Pichia pastoris, a relative new-comer as a host organism, is already becoming a popular choice, particularly because of the ease with which high biomass (and hence recombinant protein) yields can be achieved. In the last few years, advances have been made in understanding how a yeast cell responds to the stress of producing a recombinant protein and how this information can be used to identify improved host strains in order to increase functional yields. Given these advantages, and their industrial importance in the production of biopharmaceuticals, I argue that S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris should be considered at an early stage in any serious strategy to produce proteins.
Frontiers in Microbiology 03/2014; 5:85. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2014.00085 · 3.99 Impact Factor
". FACS offers the additional possibility to normalize for protein display level during sorting and to screen for protein stability  . Yeast display further enables the direct characterisation of affinity and binding epitopes by antigen titration and flow cytometric analysis without the need of reformatting expression plasmids after selection . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, several cell-based screening technologies for the isolation of antibodies with prescribed properties emerged. They rely on the multi-copy display of antibodies or antibody fragments on a cell surface in functional form followed by high through screening and isolation of cell clones that carry an antibody variant with the desired affinity, specificity, and stability. Particularly yeast surface display in combination with high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting has proven successful in the last fifteen years as a very powerful technology that has some advantages over classical generation of monoclonals using the hybridoma technology or bacteriophage-based antibody display and screening. Cell-based screening harbours the benefit of single-cell online and real-time analysis and characterisation of individual library candidates. Moreover, when using eukaryotic expression host, intrinsic quality control machineries for proper protein folding and stability exist that allow for co-selection of high-level expression and stability simultaneously to the binding functionality. Recently, promising technologies emerged that directly rely on antibody display on higher eukaryotic cells lines using lentiviral transfection or direct screening on B-cells. The combination of immunisation, B-cell screening and next generation sequencing may open new avenues for the isolation of therapeutic antibodies with prescribed physicochemical and functional characteristics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the most important but still poorly understood issues in protein chemistry is the relationship between sequence and stability of proteins. Here, we present a method for analyzing the influence of each individual residue on the foldability and stability of an entire protein. A randomly mutated library of the crystallizable fragment of human immunoglobulin G class 1 (IgG1-Fc) was expressed on the surface of yeast, followed by heat incubation at 79°C and selection of stable variants that still bound to structurally specific ligands. High throughput sequencing allowed comparison of the mutation rate between the starting and selected library pools, enabling the generation of a stability landscape for the entire CH3 domain of human IgG1 at single residue resolution. Its quality was analyzed with respect to (i) the structure of IgG1-Fc, (ii) evolutionarily conserved positions and (iii) in silico calculations of the energy of unfolding of all variants in comparison with the wild-type protein. In addition, this new experimental approach allowed the assignment of functional epitopes of structurally specific ligands used for selection [Fc γ-receptor I (CD64) and anti-human CH2 domain antibody] to distinct binding regions in the CH2 domain.
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