Delayed Onset Lactogenesis II Predicts the Cessation of Any or Exclusive Breastfeeding

Department of Research, Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.74). 05/2012; 161(4):608-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.03.035
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To evaluate the association between delayed lactogenesis II (>3 days postpartum; delayed onset lactogenesis II [DLII]) and the cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding at 4-weeks postpartum.
We constructed multivariable logistic regression models using data from 2491 mothers enrolled in the prospective Infant Feeding Practice Study II cohort. Models included DLII, known risk factors for breastfeeding cessation (age, education, race, parity/previous breastfeeding, and exclusive breastfeeding plan), and potential confounders identified in bivariate analyses (P ≤ .1). Backward selection processes (P ≤ .1) determined risk factor retention in the final model.
DLII was associated with cessation of any and exclusive breastfeeding at 4-weeks postpartum (OR 1.62; CI 1.14-2.31; OR 1.62; CI 1.18-2.22, respectively); numerous independent risk factors qualified for inclusion in the multivariable model(s) and were associated with the outcome(s) of interest (eg, supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children enrollment, onset of prenatal care, feeding on-demand, time initiated first breastfeed, hospital rooming-in, obstetric provider preference for exclusive breastfeeding, and maternal tobacco use).
Women experiencing DLII may be less able to sustain any and/or exclusive breastfeeding in the early postpartum period. Routine assessment of DLII in postpartum breastfeeding follow-up is warranted. Women with DLII may benefit from additional early postpartum interventions to support favorable breastfeeding outcomes.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Breastfeeding improves maternal and child health. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, with continued breastfeeding for at least 1 year. However, in the US, only 18.8% of infants are exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age. For mothers who initiate breastfeeding, the early post-partum period sets the stage for sustained breastfeeding. Mothers who experience breastfeeding problems in the early post-partum period are more likely to discontinue breastfeeding within 2 weeks. A major risk factor for shorter breastfeeding duration is delayed lactogenesis II (DLII; i.e., onset of milk “coming in” more than 72 h post-partum). Recent studies report a metabolic–hormonal link to DLII. This is not surprising because around the time of birth the mother’s entire metabolism changes to direct nutrients to mammary glands. Circadian and metabolic systems are closely linked, and our rodent studies suggest circadian clocks coordinate hormonal and metabolic changes to support lactation. Molecular and environmental disruption of the circadian system decreases a dam’s ability to initiate lactation and negatively impacts milk production. Circadian and metabolic systems evolved to be functional and adaptive when lifestyles and environmental exposures were quite different from modern times. We now have artificial lights, longer work days, and increases in shift work. Disruption in the circadian system due to shift work, jet-lag, sleep disorders, and other modern life style choices are associated with metabolic disorders, obesity, and impaired reproduction. We hypothesize that DLII is related to disruption of the mother’s circadian system. Here, we review literature that supports this hypothesis, and describe interventions that may help to increase breastfeeding success.
    02/2015; 2. DOI:10.3389/fnut.2015.00004
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To examine (i) the prevalence of and associations between breast-feeding initiation and continuation by maternal diabetes status and (ii) the reasons for not initiating and/or continuing breast-feeding by maternal diabetes status. Secondary data analyses of a population-based cross-sectional study were conducting using data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2009-2011. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the associations between breast-feeding initiation and continuation by diabetes status. Thirty states and New York City, USA. Mothers of recently live-born infants, selected by birth certificate sampling. Among 72755 women, 8·8 % had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 1·7 % had pregestational diabetes mellitus (PDM). Breast-feeding initiation was similar among GDM and no diabetes mellitus (NDM) women (80·8 % v. 82·2 %, respectively, P=0·2), but continuation was lower among GDM (65·7 % v. 68·8 %, respectively, P=0·01). PDM women had lower initiation and continuation compared with NDM (78·2 %, P=0·03 and 60·4 %, P<0·01, respectively). In adjusted analyses, current smoking status was a significant effect modifier for initiation, but not for continuation. Differences in breast-feeding initiation and continuation prevalence by maternal diabetes status may reflect differences in prenatal education, indicating the need for increased efforts among PDM women. Additionally, non-smoking women with PDM or GDM would benefit from additional breast-feeding education.
    Public Health Nutrition 05/2014; 18(04):1-9. DOI:10.1017/S1368980014000792 · 2.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between epidural analgesia (EDA) in labor and the onset of lactation in healthy women after birth. In a Regional Perinatal Center in northern Italy, women who had had a vaginal delivery were recruited by convenience sampling. Analyses were carried out on the data of 366 women. 209 women received EDA and 157 women did not receive EDA or any other pharmacological analgesia. A structured follow-up was carried out interviewing women by telephone after 5 days and, a second time, 20 days after delivery. The primary outcome was the time (in hours) of the onset of lactation. Timing of the onset of lactation in the EDA and non-EDA groups did not statistically differ (p = 0.15), although the non-EDA group was more likely to initiate breastfeeding. On the basis of the results of this study, we concluded that intrapartum EDA does not have an effect on delays in the onset of lactation.
    Maternal and Child Health Journal 06/2014; 19(3). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1532-x · 2.24 Impact Factor


Available from
May 16, 2014