Evaluation of arterial blood gases and arterial blood pressures in brachycephalic dogs.
ABSTRACT Brachycephalic dogs (BD) are prone to congenital upper airway obstruction (brachycephalic syndrome, BS). In humans suffering from sleep apnea, upper airway obstruction is known to cause hypertension. There is no information regarding the influence of BS in dogs on cardiorespiratory physiology.
BD are prone to lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO (2), and hypertension compared with meso- or dolicocephalic dogs (MDD).
Eleven BD and 11 MDD.
After a questionnaire was completed by the owner, a physical examination was performed. Height and thoracic circumferences were measured. Arterial blood gases, electrolyte concentrations, and packed cell volume (PCV) were measured. Systolic (SAP), mean (MAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure recordings were performed.
A total of 7 French and 4 English bulldogs met the inclusion criteria. The control group consisted in 6 Beagles, 2 mixed breed dogs, 1 Staffordshire Bull Terrier, 1 Parson Russell Terrier, and 1 Australian Cattle Dog. Statistically, BD had lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO2, and higher PCV when compared with controls (86.2 ± 15.9 versus 100.2 ± 12.6 mmHg, P = .017; 36.3 ± 4.6 versus 32.7 ± 2.6 mmHg, P = .019; 48.2 ± 3.5 versus 44.2 ± 5.4%, P = .026, respectively). Also, they had significantly higher SAP (177.6 ± 25.0 versus 153.5 ± 21.7 mmHg, P = .013), MAP (123.3 ± 17.1 versus 108.3 ± 12.2 mmHg, P = .014), and DAP (95.3 ± 19.2 versus 83.0 ± 11.5 mmHg, P = .042). BD with a P(a) CO (2) >35 mmHg were significantly older than those with a P(a) CO (2) ≤35 mmHg (58 ± 16 and 30 ± 11 months, P = .004).
Results of this study suggest that some BD are prone to lower P(a) O(2), higher P(a) CO (2), and hypertension when compared with MDD. Age may be a contributing factor.
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ABSTRACT: Background There is an increasing interest for breed-specific reference intervals in veterinary medicine. In a previous study, breed-specific biochemical reference intervals (RIs) have been established for Dogues de Bordeaux (DDBs). This breed is predisposed to familial juvenile glomerulonephropathy and hypothyroidism, and would benefit from hematologic RI.Objective The purpose was de novo establishment of breed-specific hematologic RIs for the DDB in accordance with the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.Methods One hundred and twenty DDBs from France and Belgium were recruited. CBCs were determined with the Sysmex XT-2000iV analyzer within 12 hours of blood collection. RIs were determined using the nonparametric method. Effects of sex, age, and face mask color were studied.ResultsRIs were determined in 58 healthy dogs. DDBs had higher RIs for HGB, HCT, MCV, MCHC, and mean platelet volume, and lower RIs for reticulocytes counts, platelets by impedance (PLT-I) and optical count (PLT-O), and plateletcrit when compared with generic canine RIs. Age significantly affected RIs for HGB, HCT, MCHC, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts.Conclusion The generic canine RIs established in the same laboratory with analogous preanalytical and analytical variations did not differ significantly from breed-specific RIs, and thus have no significant impact on clinical decision making; however, breed-specific RIs are advised for some RBC and all platelet-related variables to avoid erroneous suspicion of polycythemia and thrombocytopenia when using general canine RIs for evaluation of DDB.Veterinary Clinical Pathology 05/2014; · 1.29 Impact Factor
Article: Urethral Plugs in Dogs.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Crystalline-matrix urethral plugs have not been previously reported in dogs. To report the composition of urethral plugs in dogs, describe clinical features of the disease, and identify overrepresented breeds. Retrospective case series. A Minnesota Urolith Center (MUC) record search was performed for urethral plugs in dogs submitted during a 6-year period. The composition of the plugs and signalment of affected dogs were recorded. Breed risk analysis was performed using a control group without plugs from the Veterinary Medical Center, University of Minnesota (VMC UMN). Breed risk was also calculated for a group of dogs with struvite (plugs and uroliths). Medical records for the subset of plug cases from the VMC UMN were reviewed and described. Between 2006 and 2011, 42 urethral plugs from dogs were submitted to the MUC. All came from male dogs, and the mineral component of the majority (83%) was struvite. Thirty (71%) samples were from Pugs. Pugs were overrepresented in plug submissions (OR 179; CI 88-389; P < .001), and for struvite in general (OR 14.3; CI 7.9-24.4; P < .001). Nine of the dogs were treated at VMC UMN; all were castrated male Pugs. None of these cases had bacteriuria or positive urine cultures, and no underlying cause of plug formation was identified. When evaluating dogs with urethral obstruction, plugs need to be considered, especially in male Pugs. Further investigation into the underlying cause of plug formation in dogs is warranted.Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 02/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
Article: Brachycephalic airway syndrome.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brachycephalic airway syndrome is a common finding in brachycephalic breeds. A combination of primary and secondary changes can progress to life-threatening laryngeal collapse. Early recognition of primary anatomic abnormalities that include stenotic nares, elongated soft palate, and hypoplastic trachea would allow the clinician to make early recommendations for medical and surgical management, which can improve the quality of life in affected animals.Topics in Companion Animal Medicine 08/2013; 28(3):91-6. · 0.93 Impact Factor