In our previous study, ovarian stimulation retarded post-implantation development and caused 92 genes, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), to be differentially expressed in mouse blastocysts. None of them had been tested at protein level, In this study, we confirm the level change of IL-6 mRNA in mouse blastocysts and IL-6 protein release to the culture medium from mouse and human pre-implantation embryos.
IL-6 mRNA were measured by PCR and IL-6 release to the culture medium were measured by ELISA.
Superovulation caused a 1.95-fold reduction in IL-6 mRNA in mouse blastocysts and reduced IL-6 secretion into the culture medium in mouse zygotes which were developed to the blastocyst stage (6.397 ± 0.635 versus 4.799 ± 0.312 pg/mL). Ovarian stimulation also significantly reduced IL-6 release into the culture medium in human zygotes which were cultured for 2 days (4.713 ± 0.945 versus 4.543 ± 0.796 pg/mL).
Our findings indicate that IL-6 might serve as a candidate marker for evaluating embryo developmental competence.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors are known to play important roles in the preimplantation interactions and communication between the blastocyst and receptive endometrium. This crucial dialog occurs during the stages when the blastocyst is in the uterine cavity immediately preceding implantation and the establishment of pregnancy. Human preimplantation processes are difficult to study due to restrictions on tissue availability. This review focuses on the expression and role of immune factors in human blastocyst-endometrial dialog during the very early stages of implantation. It highlights the importance of immune regulators and the need to develop new models to study human implantation.
American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 11/2012; 69(5). DOI:10.1111/aji.12038 · 2.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome aneuploidies commonly arise in embryos produced by assisted reproductive technologies and represent a major cause of implantation failure and miscarriage. Currently, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is performed by array-based methods to identify euploid embryos for transfer to the patient. We speculated that a combination of next generation sequencing technologies and sophisticated bioinformatics would deliver a more comprehensive and accurate methodology to improve the overall efficacy of embryo testing. To meet this challenge, we developed a high-resolution copy number variation (CNV) sequencing pipeline suitable for single cell analysis. In validation studies, we showed that CNV-Seq was highly sensitive and specific for detection of euploidy, aneuploidy and segmental imbalances in 24 WGA samples from PGD embryos that were originally diagnosed by gold standard array CGH. In addition, CNV-Seq was capable of detecting, mapping and accurately quantifying terminal chromosome imbalances down to 1 Mb in size originating from abnormal segregation of translocation chromosomes. These validation studies indicate that CNV-Seq displays the hallmarks of an accurate and reliable embryo test with the potential to further improve the overall efficacy of PGD.
Biology of Reproduction 06/2014; 91(2). DOI:10.1095/biolreprod.114.120576 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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