Novel medication targets for the treatment of alcoholism: preclinical studies.
ABSTRACT Alcoholism is a complex heterogeneous disease and a number of neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems have been implicated in its manifestation. Consequently, it is unlikely that existing medications such as disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (ReVia®), acamprosate (Campral®)) can be efficacious in every individual. Thus, the development of novel therapeutic agents with greater selectivity and less unwanted effects for the treatment of this disease is one of the major objectives of alcohol research. This review summarizes the findings of five novel compounds with different neuronal targets for treating alcoholism. These compounds include sazetidine-A, which selectively desensitizes α4β2 nicotinic receptors; carisbamate, a novel anti-epileptic agent; JNJ5234801, a novel anxiolytic agent; GS-455534, a highly selective inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase; and JNJ-39220675, a selective histamine H3 antagonist. Inbred alcohol-preferring rats (iP), Fawn-Hooded (FH) rats, and P rats were used to evaluate the compounds. Naltrexone was used as a positive control in some experiments. All five compounds reduced alcohol consumption and preference. The mechanisms thought to underlie these effects suggest that, in addition to dopaminergic and opioidergic systems, other neuronal systems such as sodium channels (carisbamate), mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (GS-455534), 5-HT2 receptors (JNJ-5234801), histamine H3 receptors (JNJ-39220675), and α4β2 nicotinic receptors (sazetidine-A) can be involved in alcohol drinking. Further work is necessary to confirm the exact mechanisms of action of each drug and to determine any viable targets for putative treatment of alcohol-use disorders. The article presents some promising patents on novel medication targets for the treatment of alcoholism.
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ABSTRACT: This paper introduces the Special Section: Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and provides a summary of patents targeting neurotransmitter systems not covered in the other four chapters. The World Health Organization notes that alcoholic-type drinking results in 2.5 million deaths per year, and these deaths occur to a disproportionately greater extent among adolescents and young adults. Developing a pharmacological treatment targeting alcohol abuse and dependence is complicated by (a) the heterogeneous nature of the disease(s), (b) alcohol affecting multiple neurotransmitter and neuromodulator systems, and (c) alcohol affecting multiple organ systems which in turn influence the function of the central nervous system. Presently, the USA Federal Drug Administration has approved three pharmacotherapies for alcoholism: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. This chapter provides a summary of the following systems, which are not covered in the accompanying chapters; alcohol and acetaldehyde metabolism, opioid, glycinergic, GABA-A, neurosteroid, dopaminergic, serotonergic, and endocannabinoid, as well as patents targeting these systems for the treatment of alcoholism. Finally, an overview is presented on the use of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics in tailoring treatments for certain subpopulations of alcoholics, which is expected to continue in the future.05/2012; 7(2):93-112. DOI:10.2174/157488912800673155
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence.Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 07/2012; 103(1):119-55. DOI:10.1016/j.pbb.2012.07.007 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Caffeine, alcohol, and nicotine are 3 of the most widespread self-administered psychoactive substances, which are known to be extensively co-administered. However, little is known about the degree to which they may mutually potentiate each other's consumption. In the current set of studies, we examined in rats the effect of caffeine administration on alcohol drinking and intravenous (i.v.) self-administration of nicotine. In male alcohol-preferring (P) rats, caffeine (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or the saline vehicle was administered acutely either by subcutaneous (S.C.) injection or orally (PO) by gavage. In a chronic study, the effect of PO caffeine (5 and 20 mg/kg) on alcohol intake over a 10-day period was tested. In another experiment, the effect of acute PO administration of caffeine (20 mg/kg) or saline on saccharin intake (0.2% solution) was determined in P rats. Effects of 20 mg/kg caffeine on motor activity were also determined in P rats. Finally, the effects of acute PO caffeine administration on nicotine self-administration in Sprague-Dawley rats were also determined. Both routes of administration of caffeine, S.C. and PO, caused a significant dose-related decrease in alcohol intake and preference during free access to alcohol and after 4-day deprivation of alcohol. However, the low dose of 5 mg/kg caffeine increased alcohol intake. Acute PO caffeine also reduced saccharin intake. Acute systemic administration of 20 mg/kg caffeine did not exert a significant effect on motor activity. In Sprague-Dawley rats trained to self-administer i.v. nicotine, acute PO administration of caffeine significantly increased self-administration of nicotine in a dose-related manner. These results suggest that adenosine receptor systems may play a role in both alcohol and nicotine intake and deserve further study regarding these addictions.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 04/2013; DOI:10.1111/acer.12127 · 3.31 Impact Factor