Biobank-based research is growing in importance. A major controversy exists about the return of aggregate and individual research results.
The authors used a mixed-method approach in order to study parents' attitudes towards the return of research results regarding themselves and their children. Participants attended four 2-h, deliberative-engagement sessions held on two consecutive Saturdays. Each session consisted of an educational presentation followed by focus-group discussions with structured questions and prompts. This manuscript examines discussions from the second Saturday which focused on the benefits and risks of returning aggregate and individual research results regarding both adults (morning session) and children (afternoon session). Attitudes were assessed in pre-engagement and post-engagement surveys.
The authors recruited 45 African-American adults whose children received medical care at two healthcare facilities on the South Side of Chicago that serve different socioeconomic communities. Three dominant themes were identified. First, most participants stated that they would enrol themselves and their children in a biobank, although there was a vocal minority opposed to enrolling children, particularly children unable to participate in the consent process. Second, participants did not distinguish between the results they wanted to receive regarding themselves and their children. Supplemental survey data found no attitudinal changes pre-engagement and post-engagement. Third, participants believed that children should be allowed access to their health information, but they wanted to be involved in deciding when and how the information was shared.
Participant attitudes are in tension with current biobank policies. An intensive educational effort had no effect on their attitudes.
"Some studies have examined willingness to participate specifically in genomics research and biobanks, and reasons for that willingness or lack thereof, among minority populations . Although many altruistic and personal reasons for participating were expressed by primarily African American and Hispanic biobank participants in one focus group study (Streicher et al. 2011), distrust was found to be a major theme expressed by African Americans when discussing biobank participation in another focus group study (Halverson and Ross 2012). Non-Hispanic Whites were more likely than individuals of other racial and ethnic groups to enroll in a clinicbased biobank (Ridgeway et al. 2013). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients from traditionally underrepresented communities need to be involved in discussions around genomics research including attitudes towards participation and receiving personal results. Structured interviews, including open-ended and closed-ended questions, were conducted with 205 patients in an inner-city hospital outpatient clinic: 48 % of participants self-identified as Black or African American, 29 % Hispanic, 10 % White; 49 % had an annual household income of <$20,000. When the potential for personal results to be returned was not mentioned, 82 % of participants were willing to participate in genomics research. Reasons for willingness fell into four themes: altruism; benefit to family members; personal health benefit; personal curiosity and improving understanding. Reasons for being unwilling fell into five themes: negative perception of research; not personally relevant; negative feelings about procedures (e.g., blood draws); practical barriers; and fear of results. Participants were more likely to report that they would participate in genomics research if personal results were offered than if they were not offered (89 vs. 62 % respectively, p < 0.001). Participants were more interested in receiving personal genomic risk results for cancer, heart disease and type 2 diabetes than obesity (89, 89, 91, 80 % respectively, all p < 0.001). The only characteristic consistently associated with interest in receiving personal results was disease-specific worry. There was considerable willingness to participate in and desire for personal results from genomics research in this sample of predominantly low-income, Hispanic and African American patients. When returning results is not practical, or even when it is, alternatively or additionally providing generic information about genomics and health may also be a valuable commodity to underrepresented minority and other populations considering participating in genomics research.
Journal of community genetics 06/2013; 4(4). DOI:10.1007/s12687-013-0154-0
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Greater clinical validity and economic feasibility are driving the more widespread use of multiplex genetic technologies in routine clinical care, especially for applications in pharmacogenomics. Empirical data on the numbers and types of incidental findings generated through such testing are needed to develop policies and practices related to their clinical use. Of particular importance are disparities in findings relevant to different ancestry groups.
The Pharmacogenomic Resource for Enhanced Decisions in Care and Treatment Resource, or PREDICT, is an institutional program to implement prospective clinical genotyping of 34 pharmacogenomic-related genes to guide drug selection and dosing. We curated 5,566 journal articles to quantify and characterize the incidental, non-pharmacogenomic genotype-phenotype associations that could be generated through this clinical genotyping project.
We identified 372 putative incidental genotype-phenotype associations that might be revealed in patients undergoing clinical genotyping for pharmacogenomic purposes. Of these, 287 associations were supported by at least one study demonstrating an odds ratio ≥2.0 or ≤0.5. Numbers of potentially relevant findings varied widely by ancestry group.
Rigorous clinical policies for the clinical management of incidental findings are needed because the sheer number of significant findings could prove overwhelming to health-care institutions, providers, and patients.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 11/2012; 15(5). DOI:10.1038/gim.2012.147 · 7.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: While the disclosure of research findings is relevant to all types of biomedical research, it has garnered particular attention with respect to genetics and genomics research due to some of the unique aspects of the data and the high public profile of the field. In this chapter, we review the attitudes of stakeholders (research participants, policymakers, and researchers) to define areas of consensus regarding the issue of returning research results across and within groups. In addition to stakeholder attitudes about obligations and interest in research results, other major related issues related to returning research results, such as informed consent, communication of research results, and cost, are discussed. Given the consensus between stakeholders to return summary reports of a study's outcomes and individual research results of clinical significance, we conclude that the time has come to encourage, if not require, researchers to consider these issues in the developmental planning stages of a project and to plan and budget accordingly.
Advances in genetics 11/2013; 84C:41-81. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-407703-4.00002-5 · 6.76 Impact Factor
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