Impact of immune modulation with in vivo T-cell depletion and myleoablative total body irradiation conditioning on outcomes after unrelated donor transplantation for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia
ABSTRACT To determine whether in vivo T-cell depletion, which lowers GVHD, abrogates the antileukemic benefits of myeloablative total body irradiation-based conditioning and unrelated donor transplantation, in the present study, we analyzed 715 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Patients were grouped for analysis according to whether conditioning included antithymocyte globulin (ATG; n = 191) or alemtuzumab (n = 132) and no in vivo T-cell depletion (n = 392). The median follow-up time was 3.5 years for the ATG group and 5 years for the alemtuzumab and T cell-replete groups. Using Cox regression analysis, we compared transplantation outcomes between groups. Compared with no T-cell depletion, grade 2-4 acute and chronic GVHD rates were significantly lower after in vivo T-cell depletion with ATG (relative risk [RR] = 0.66; P = .005 and RR = 0.55; P < .0001, respectively) or alemtuzumab (RR = 0.09; P < .003 and RR = 0.21; P < .0001, respectively). Despite lower GVHD rates after in vivo T-cell depletion, nonrelapse mortality, relapse, overall survival, and leukemia-free survival (LFS) did not differ significantly among the treatment groups. The 3-year probabilities of LFS after ATG-containing, alemtuzumab-containing, and T cell-replete transplantations were 43%, 49%, and 46%, respectively. These data suggest that in vivo T-cell depletion lowers GVHD without compromising LFS among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who are undergoing unrelated donor transplantation with myeloablative total body irradiation-based regimens.
Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 01/2015; 21(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.01.004 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Haematopoeitic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative procedure for children with malignant and non-malignant haematological disease as well as an expanding number of inherited disorders. Most patients lack a human leucocyte antigen-matched related donor, making alternative donors, such as closely matched unrelated donors, unrelated umbilical cord blood donations and haploidentical donors, necessary choices. T cell depletion (TCD) has been employed for over 30 years to reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) associated with non-genoidentical HSCT. However, until recently overall survival had not improved with TCD due to increased rates of graft failure, disease relapse and delayed immune reconstitution. Recent advances in graft manipulation and reduced toxicity conditioning regimens have offered renewed hope, particularly for children undergoing haploidentical HSCT, where encouraging results have been achieved using negative depletion techniques to retain beneficial accessory cells, which speed immune reconstitution and reduce disease relapse. Translational work building on megadose CD34(+) selected grafts, including pathogen-specific immunotherapy, suicide gene therapy and other adoptive cellular immunotherapies, has also offered improved outcomes for such patients.British Journal of Haematology 05/2013; DOI:10.1111/bjh.12400 · 4.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In vivo T-cell depletion, using alemtuzumab therapy prior to SCT, can reduce the incidence of GVHD. This treatment has a potential to delay immune reconstitution resulting in increased morbidity due to viral illnesses. We retrospectively analyzed data on all pediatric patients with non-malignant disorders who received alemtuzumab-based conditioning regimens in our center over the last 10 yr (n = 91). Our data show an OS of 91.2%. The incidence of acute (grade 2–4) GVHD was 18.7% and that of chronic GVHD 5.5%. Viremia due to adenovirus, EBV and CMV was seen in 19.8%, 64.8% and 39.6% patients, respectively, with only two deaths attributed to viral infection (adenovirus). Chimerism level at three month was predictive of graft outcome. Nine patients, who had graft failure after first SCT, were salvaged with a second SCT using RIC and same donor (if available). Based on these results, we conclude that the use of in vivo T-cell depletion is safe, achieves good chimerism and does not lead to increased morbidity and mortality due to viral infections. It is associated with a reduced incidence of chronic GVHD.Pediatric Transplantation 12/2014; 19(2). DOI:10.1111/petr.12416 · 1.63 Impact Factor