Article

Growth and regression of vasculature in healthy and diabetic mice after hindlimb ischemia

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.53). 05/2012; 303(1):R48-56. DOI: 10.1152/ajpregu.00002.2012
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The formation of vascular networks during embryogenesis and early stages of development encompasses complex and tightly regulated growth of blood vessels, followed by maturation of some vessels, and spatially controlled disconnection and pruning of others. The adult vasculature, while more quiescent, is also capable of adapting to changing physiological conditions by remodeling blood vessels. Numerous studies have focused on understanding key factors that drive vessel growth in the adult in response to ischemic injury. However, little is known about the extent of vessel rarefaction and its potential contribution to the final outcome of vascular recovery. We addressed this topic by characterizing the endogenous phases of vascular repair in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. We showed that this process is biphasic. It encompasses an initial rapid phase of vessel growth, followed by a later phase of vessel rarefaction. In healthy mice, this process resulted in partial recovery of perfusion and completely restored the ability of mice to run voluntarily. Given that the ability to revascularize can be compromised by a cardiovascular risk factor such as diabetes, we also examined vascular repair in diabetic mice. We found that paradoxically both the initial growth and subsequent regression of collateral vessels were more pronounced in the setting of diabetes and resulted in impaired recovery of perfusion and impaired functional status. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the formation of functional collateral vessels in the hindlimb requires vessel growth and subsequent vessel rarefaction. In the setting of diabetes, the physiological defect was not in the initial formation of vessels but rather in the inability to sustain newly formed vessels.

0 Followers
 · 
88 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal monitoring techniques for preclinical models of vascular remodeling are critical to the development of new therapies for pathological conditions such as ischemia and cancer. In models of skeletal muscle ischemia in particular, there is a lack of quantitative, non-invasive and long term assessment of vessel morphology. Here, we have applied speckle variance optical coherence tomography (OCT) methods to quantitatively assess vascular remodeling and growth in a mouse model of peripheral arterial disease. This approach was validated on two different mouse strains known to have disparate rates and abilities of recovering following induction of hind limb ischemia. These results establish the potential for speckle variance OCT as a tool for quantitative, preclinical screening of pro- and anti-angiogenic therapies.
    Biomedical Optics Express 12/2014; 5(12). DOI:10.1364/BOE.5.004118 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Microcomputed tomography (microCT) has become a standard and essential tool for quantifying structure-function relationships, disease progression, and regeneration in preclinical models and has facilitated numerous scientific and bioengineering advancements over the past 30 years. In this article, we recount the early events that led to the initial development of microCT and review microCT approaches for quantitative evaluation of bone, cartilage, and cardiovascular structures, with applications in fundamental structure-function analysis, disease, tissue engineering, and numerical modeling. Finally, we address several next-generation approaches under active investigation to improve spatial resolution, acquisition time, tissue contrast, radiation dose, and functional and molecular information.
    Stem Cell Research & Therapy 12/2014; 5(144). DOI:10.1186/scrt534 · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic disease of the extremities that leads to high rates of myocardial infarction and stroke, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life. PAD is especially prevalent in diabetic patients, and is commonly modeled by hind limb ischemia in mice to study collateral vessel development and test novel therapies. Current techniques used to assess recovery cannot obtain quantitative, physiological data non-invasively. Here, we have applied hyperspectral imaging and swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) to study longitudinal changes in blood oxygenation and vascular morphology, respectively, intravitally in the diabetic mouse hind limb ischemia model. Additionally, recommended ranges for controlling physiological variability in blood oxygenation with respect to respiration rate and body core temperature were determined from a control animal experiment. In the longitudinal study with diabetic mice, hyperspectral imaging data revealed the dynamics of blood oxygenation recovery distally in the ischemic footpad. In diabetic mice, there is an early increase in oxygenation that is not sustained in the long term. Quantitative analysis of vascular morphology obtained from Hessian-filtered speckle variance OCT volumes revealed temporal dynamics in vascular density, total vessel length, and vessel diameter distribution in the adductor muscle of the ischemic limb. The combination of hyperspectral imaging and speckle variance OCT enabled acquisition of novel functional and morphological endpoints from individual animals, and provides a more robust platform for future preclinical evaluations of novel therapies for PAD.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 02/2014; DOI:10.1117/12.2042037 · 0.20 Impact Factor