Frex and FrexH

Synthetic Biology and Biotechnology Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
Bioengineered bugs 05/2012; 3(3):181-8. DOI: 10.4161/bbug.19769
Source: PubMed


Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and its oxidized form play central roles in energy and redox metabolisms. For many years, researchers have relied on the weak NADH endogenous fluorescence signal to determine the NADH level in living cells. We recently reported a series of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors highly specific for NADH. These sensors allow real-time, quantitative measurement of this significant molecule in different subcellular compartments. In this study, we provide a more detailed discussion of the benefits and limitations of these genetically encoded fluorescent sensors. These sensors are utilized in most laboratories without the need for sophisticated instruments because of their superior sensitivity and specificity. They are also viable alternatives to existing techniques for measuring the endogenous fluorescence of intracellular NAD(P)H.

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Available from: Yuzheng Zhao, May 10, 2014
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    • ", 2000 ) . of the total mitochondrial NADH in resting cells . According to these calcu - lations , Frex sensors are unlikely to have a major impact on the total NADH concentration and the metabolic status of the cells in which they are expressed ( Zhao & Yang , 2012 ) . "
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    ABSTRACT: Redox metabolism plays a critical role in multiple pathophysiological settings, including oncogenesis and tumor progression. Until recently, however, our knowledge of key redox processes in living systems was limited by the lack of an adequate methodology to monitor redox potential. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, in its reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD(+)) forms, is perhaps the most important small molecule in the redox metabolism of mammalian cells. We have previously developed a series of genetically encoded fluorescent sensors allowing for the quantification of intracellular NADH. Here, we present experimental components and considerations that are required to perform a standardized quantification of intracellular NADH based on these probes. Moreover, we present the initial calibration experiments necessary to obtain reliable data from this approach, we detail a protocol to measure intracellular NADH levels in steady-state kinetic experiments, and we provide consideration on the processing of data. Among various applications, this technique is suitable for the study of redox alterations in malignant cells.
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    ABSTRACT: Yeast-based biosensing (YBB) is an exciting research area, as many studies have demonstrated the use of yeasts to accurately detect specific molecules. Biosensors incorporating various yeasts have been reported to detect an incredibly large range of molecules including but not limited to odorants, metals, intracellular metabolites, carcinogens, lactate, alcohols, and sugars. We review the detection strategies available for different types of analytes, as well as the wide range of output methods that have been incorporated with yeast biosensors. We group biosensors into two categories: those that are dependent upon transcription of a gene to report the detection of a desired molecule, and those that are independent of this reporting mechanism. Transcription dependent biosensors frequently depend on heterologous expression of sensing elements from non-yeast organisms, a strategy that has greatly expanded the range of molecules available for detection by YBBs. Transcription independent biosensors circumvent the problem of sensing difficult-to-detect analytes by instead relying on yeast metabolism to generate easily detected molecules when the analyte is present. The use of yeast as the sensing element in biosensors has proven to be successful and continues to hold great promise for a variety of applications.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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