Stair ascent kinematics and kinetics with a powered lower leg system following transtibial amputation.
ABSTRACT During stair ascent (STA) persons with transtibial amputation (TTA) typically adopt a hip strategy to compensate for the limited ankle motion and joint power that is characteristic of conventional energy storing and returning (ESR) prosthetic feet. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if providing ankle power via a powered prosthetic device (BiOM) normalized STA kinematics and kinetics. Eleven individuals with TTA participated in two STA gait analysis sessions: (1) using an ESR foot, and (2) using the BiOM. Eleven height and weight matched able-bodied controls (CONT) were also assessed. Lower extremity peak kinematic and kinetic values were calculated at a self-selected and controlled cadence (80 steps/min). Increased prosthetic limb peak ankle plantarflexion and push-up power were observed while using the BiOM as compared to ESR. Peak ankle power was not significantly different between BiOM and CONT indicating normalization of ankle power generation. However, peak ankle plantarflexion was significantly lower than CONT. Limb asymmetries including greater prosthetic limb hip flexion and power during stance, and decreased prosthetic limb knee power during stance were observed in the BiOM and ESR conditions. The results suggest that the BiOM successfully increased ankle motion and restored ankle power during STA. These differences did not, however, reduce the use of a hip strategy while ascending stairs. Additional device specific training may be necessary to utilize the full benefits of the device.
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ABSTRACT: Negotiating a raised surface during continuous gait is an important activity of daily living and is a potentially hazardous task with regards to trips, falls and fall-related injury. However, it is not known how recent transtibial amputees adapt to performing stepping gait tasks in the 6-month period following discharge from rehabilitation.Clinical biomechanics (Bristol, Avon) 06/2014; · 1.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A comprehensive knowledge of the loads applied during activities of daily living to the femur shaft is necessary to the design of direct attachments of relevant prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate the three components of the forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the full femur shaft. Twenty healthy young volunteers were analyzed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stairs ascending and descending, squat, rising from a chair and sitting down. Average load patterns, after normalisation for body weight and height, were calculated over subjects for each point, about the three anatomical axes, and for each motor task. These patterns were found consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes and tasks. In general, the moments were observed limitedly influenced by the progression speed, and higher for more proximal points. The moments were also higher in abd/adduction (8.1% body weight⁎height on average), nearly three times larger than those in flex/extension (2.6) during stair descending. The largest value over all moments was 164.8Nm, abd/adduction in level walking at high speed. The present results should be of value also for a most suitable level for amputation in transfemoral amputation, for in-vitro mechanical tests and for finite element models of the femur.Journal of biomechanics 07/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lower limb prostheses that can generate net positive mechanical work may restore more ambulation modes to amputees. However, configuration of these devices imposes an additional burden on clinicians relative to conventional prostheses; devices for transfemoral amputees that require configuration of both a knee and an ankle joint are especially challenging. In this paper, we present an approach to configuring such powered devices. We developed modified intrinsic control strategies-which mimic the behavior of biological joints, depend on instantaneous loads within the prosthesis, or set impedance based on values from previous states, as well as a set of starting configuration parameters. We developed tables that include a list of desired clinical gait kinematics and the parameter modifications necessary to alter them. Our approach was implemented for a powered knee and ankle prosthesis in five ambulation modes (level-ground walking, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent). The strategies and set of starting configuration parameters were developed using data from three individuals with unilateral transfemoral amputations who had previous experience using the device; this approach was then tested on three novice unilateral transfemoral amputees. Only 17% of the total number of parameters (i.e., 24 of the 140) had to be independently adjusted for each novice user to achieve all five ambulation modes and the initial accommodation period (i.e., time to configure the device for all modes) was reduced by 56%, to 5 hours or less. This approach and subsequent reduction in configuration time may help translate powered prostheses into a viable clinical option where amputees can more quickly appreciate the benefits such devices can provide.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99387. · 3.73 Impact Factor