New directions in targeting protein kinases: focusing upon true allosteric and bivalent inhibitors.
ABSTRACT Over the past decade, therapeutics that target subsets of the 518 human protein kinases have played a vital role in the fight against cancer. Protein kinases are typically targeted at the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cleft by type I and II inhibitors, however, the high sequence and structural homology shared by protein kinases, especially at the ATP binding site, inherently leads to polypharmacology. In order to discover or design truly selective protein kinase inhibitors as both pharmacological reagents and safer therapeutic leads, new efforts are needed to target kinases outside the ATP cleft. Recent advances include the serendipitous discovery of type III inhibitors that bind a site proximal to the ATP pocket as well as the truly allosteric type IV inhibitors that target protein kinases distal to the substrate binding pocket. These new classes of inhibitors are often selective but usually display moderate affinities. In this review we will discuss the different classes of inhibitors with an emphasis on bisubstrate and bivalent inhibitors (type V) that combine different inhibitor classes. These inhibitors have the potential to couple the high affinity and potency of traditional active site targeted small molecule inhibitors with the selectivity of inhibitors that target the protein kinase surface outside ATP cleft.
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ABSTRACT: Allostery is the most direct and efficient way for regulation of biological macromolecule function, ranging from the control of metabolic mechanisms to signal transduction pathways. Allosteric modulators target to allosteric sites, offering distinct advantages compared to orthosteric ligands that target to active sites, such as greater specificity, reduced side effects, and lower toxicity. Allosteric modulators have therefore drawn increasing attention as potential therapeutic drugs in the design and development of new drugs. In recent years, advancements in our understanding of the fundamental principles underlying allostery, coupled with the exploitation of powerful techniques and methods in the field of allostery, provide unprecedented opportunities to discover allosteric proteins, detect and characterize allosteric sites, design and develop novel efficient allosteric drugs, and recapitulate the universal features of allosteric proteins and allosteric modulators. In the present review, we summarize the recent advances in the repertoire of allostery, with a particular focus on the aforementioned allosteric compounds.Medicinal Research Reviews 05/2014; · 9.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A novel strategy to prepare bisubstrate based inhibitors for histone acetyltransferases is presented. To obtain these, azido peptides derived from histone H3 incorporating either a serine or a phosphoserine residue were connected to a propargyl coenzyme A derivative through copper catalyzed click chemistry. The resulting inhibitors were tested with therapeutically relevant acetyltransferase PCAF. Increased potency of the phosphoserine containing inhibitor was observed. The synthetic strategy presented may be used for developing bisubstrate based inhibitors against any acetyltransferase.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 12/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allosteric targeting of protein kinases via displacement of the structural αC helix with type III allosteric inhibitors is currently gaining a foothold in drug discovery. Recently, the first crystal structure of CDK2 with an open allosteric pocket adjacent to the αC helix has been described, prospecting new opportunities to design more selective inhibitors, but the structure has not yet been exploited for the structure-based design of type III allosteric inhibitors. In this work we report the results of a virtual screening campaign that resulted in the discovery of the first-in-class type III allosteric ligands of CDK2. Using a combination of docking and post-docking analyses made with our tool BEAR, 7 allosteric ligands (hit rate of 20%) with micromolar affinity for CDK2 were identified, some of them inhibiting the growth of breast cancer cell lines in the micromolar range. Competition experiments performed in the presence of the ATP-competitive inhibitor staurosporine confirmed that the 7 ligands are truly allosteric, in agreement with their design. Of these, compound 2 bound CDK2 with an EC 50 value of 3 μM and inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB231 and ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells with IC 50 values of approximately 20 μM, while compound 4 had an EC 50 value of 71 μM and IC 50 values around 4 μM. Remarkably, the most potent compound 4 was able to selectively inhibit CDK2-mediated Retinoblastoma phosphorylation, confirming that its mechanism of action is fully compatible with a selective inhibition of CDK2 phosphorylation in cells. Finally, hit expansion through analog search of the most potent inhibitor 4 revealed an additional ligand 4g with similar in vitro potency on breast cancer cells.Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) 06/2014; 13(14). · 5.24 Impact Factor