Does it matter who you see to help you stop smoking? Short-term quit rates across specialist stop smoking practitioners in England.
ABSTRACT A network of Stop Smoking Services has been set up within the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The services deliver a combination of behavioural support and medication. It is important to establish the degree of variability in quit rates attributable to differences between individual practitioners, to gauge the scope for improvement by training and professional support. The aim of the present analysis was to examine how far short-term quit rates depend on the practitioner delivering the intervention after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
Observational study using routinely collected data.
Thirty-one NHS Stop Smoking Services in England.
Data from 46 237 one-to-one treatment episodes (supported quit attempts) delivered by specialist practitioners.
Three-level logistic regression models were fitted for carbon monoxide (CO)-validated short-term (4-week) quit rates. Models adjusted for age, gender, exemption from prescription charges, medication and intervention setting for each treatment episode, number of clients for each practitioner and economic deprivation at the level of the Stop Smoking Service. Secondary analyses included (i) the Heaviness-of-Smoking Index (HSI) as predictor and (ii) 4-week quit rates whether or not confirmed by CO.
Differences between individual specialist practitioners explained 7.6% of the variance in CO-verified quit rates after adjusting for client demographics, intervention characteristics and practitioner and service variables (P < 0.001). HSI had little impact on this figure; in quits not necessarily validated by CO, practitioners explained less variance.
Individual stop smoking practitioners appear to differ to a significant degree in effectiveness. It is important to examine what underlies these differences in order to improve selection, training and professional development.
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ABSTRACT: There is a need for more evidence on the 'real-world' effectiveness of commonly used aids to smoking cessation from population-level studies. This study assessed the association between abstinence and use of different smoking cessation treatments after adjusting for key potential confounding factors. Cross-sectional data from aggregated monthly waves of a household survey: the Smoking Toolkit Study. England. A total of 10 335 adults who smoked within the previous 12 months and had made at least one quit attempt during that time. Participants were classified according to their use of cessation aids in their most recent quit attempt: (i) medication (nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion or varenicline) in combination with specialist behavioural support delivered by a National Health Service Stop Smoking Service; (ii) medication provided by the prescribing health-care professional without specialist behavioural support; (iii) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) bought over the counter; and (iv) none of these. The main outcome measure was self-reported abstinence up to the time of the survey, adjusted for key potential confounders including tobacco dependence. Compared with smokers using none of the cessation aids, the adjusted odds of remaining abstinent up to the time of the survey were 3.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.05-5.15] greater in users of prescription medication in combination with specialist behavioural support, 1.61 (95% CI = 1.33-1.94) greater in users of prescription medication combined with brief advice and 0.96 (95% CI = 0.81-1.13) in users of NRT bought over the counter. After adjusting for major confounding variables such as tobacco dependence, smokers in England who use a combination of behavioural support and pharmacotherapy in their quit attempts have almost three times the odds of success than those who use neither pharmacotherapy nor behavioural support. Smokers who buy nicotine replacement therapy over the counter with no behavioural support have similar odds of success in stopping as those who stop without any aid.Addiction 12/2013; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stop smoking practitioners appear to differ in effectiveness, but the stability of their success rates over time is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of stability of success rates of stop smoking practitioners over several years of practice. Using routinely collected practice data, the success rates of 197 practitioners active between April 2009 and April 2012 in the English stop smoking services were correlated across years before and after adjusting for client and intervention characteristics. Changes in client and intervention characteristics were assessed. Success rates for individual practitioners correlated highly in successive years (r = 0.64 to 0.68, p < 0.001, ICC = 0.56) and moderately over non-successive years (r = 0.39 to 0.51, p < 0.001). There was no evidence for increasing effectiveness over time. Practitioners' effectiveness is moderately stable over time. Research is needed to establish what characterises the practice of the more successful practitioners.Translational behavioral medicine. 06/2014; 4(2):220-5.
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ABSTRACT: Objective To estimate the “real-world” effectiveness of commonly used aids to smoking cessation in England by using longitudinal data. Patients and Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study in 1560 adult smokers who participated in an English national household survey in the period from November 2006 to March 2012, responded to a 6-month follow-up survey, and made at least 1 quit attempt between the 2 measurements. The quitting method was classified as follows: (1) prescription medication (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT], bupropion, or varenicline) in combination with specialist behavioral support delivered by a National Health Service Stop Smoking Service; (2) prescription medication with brief advice; (3) NRT bought over the counter; (4) none of these. The primary outcome measure was self-reported abstinence up to the time of the 6-month follow-up survey, adjusted for key potential confounders including cigarette dependence. Results Compared with smokers using none of the cessation aids, the adjusted odds of remaining abstinent up to the time of the 6-month follow-up survey were 2.58 (95% CI, 1.48-4.52) times higher in users of prescription medication in combination with specialist behavioral support and 1.55 (95% CI, 1.11-2.16) times higher in users of prescription medication with brief advice. The use of NRT bought over the counter was associated with a lower odds of abstinence (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.49-0.94). Conclusion Prescription medication offered with specialist behavioral support and that offered with minimal behavioral support are successful methods of stopping cigarette smoking in England.Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 10/2014; 89(10):1360–1367.