Salmonella diversity and burden in cows on and culled from dairy farms in the Texas High Plains.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of Salmonella carried by dairy cows culled from herds in the Texas High Plains. Feces were collected from a convenience sample of 706 animals culled from nine dairy farms. In addition, individually paired fecal and hide samples were collected from 70 healthy milking cows on three of the dairies. Samples were cultured for Salmonella using routine methods; isolates were serotyped and subjected to a panel of antimicrobial drugs to determine susceptibility. Salmonella was recovered from 32.6% of culled cows. Whole-herd use of a vaccine containing siderophore receptors and porin proteins was associated (p=0.05) with reduced Salmonella prevalence in that the prevalence among herds that practiced whole-herd vaccination was 8.0% compared to 36.8% among herds that did not use this vaccine. The majority (88.6%) of isolates were pansusceptible or resistant to one drug. Of the 3.1% of isolates resistant to more than four drugs, all were Salmonella Newport and were recovered from one dairy. Various serotypes were recovered from individual fecal and hide samples. Salmonella Montevideo was recovered more frequently (p<0.01) from hide samples, whereas Salmonella Cerro was recovered more frequently (p<0.01) from feces. Salmonella was recovered from at least one cow on all dairies. While our study was not a priori designed to address herd-level factors, we found evidence that the whole-herd use of a siderophore receptor and porin protein-containing vaccine might be a useful aid in the control of Salmonella in groups of cattle. As this is a nonrandomized evaluation of an intervention, other herd-level factors that may be correlated with vaccine use, such as biosecurity, might have been responsible for the observed association.
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ABSTRACT: Because challenge models to infect peripheral lymph nodes (PLNs) with Salmonella have not been reported, we performed a series of experiments to develop and refine challenge models to evaluate an intervention applied at the animal level and to provide initial estimates of efficacy of an intervention (i.e., a vaccine) to aid in the design of future studies. In each of four experiments, steers (control or vaccinated) were inoculated with Salmonella strains Montevideo or Newport, and in experiment IV, Salmonella Senftenberg was also used. Calves were euthanized 14 to 42 days postinoculation, and PLNs were collected. In the first experiment, calves were challenged with ,10^10 Salmonella cells, and few treatment differences were observed 14 days postchallenge. However, by day 21, Salmonella Newport was recovered from fewer vaccinated calves than control calves (P , 0.05). In experiment II, calves were challenged with ,10^7 Salmonella cells and, after two necropsies (14 and 28 days postchallenge), only one lymph node was Salmonella positive; therefore, the study was terminated. In experiment III, calves were again challenged with ,10^10 Salmonella cells, and no significant effect of vaccine was observed in calves challenged with Montevideo or Newport strains. A transdermal route of challenge was explored in experiment IV, using a 10-lancet, allergy testing instrument. Sixteen steers were challenged with either Salmonella Newport or Salmonella Montevideo (Salmonella Newport right legs; Salmonella Montevideo left legs), and all steers were challenged on the lower abdomen with Salmonella Senftenberg. Transdermal inoculation resulted in predictably Salmonella-positive PLNs, and a modest vaccine effect was detected. Because it is well tolerated by the calves and results in predictable and regionally specific Salmonella recovery from PLNs, the transdermal route of challenge may be preferred by researchers wishing to evaluate the impact of interventions designed to reduce the carriage of Salmonella in PLNs.Journal of food protection 03/2013; 76(7):1259-1263. · 1.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Bovine peripheral lymph nodes (LNs), including subiliac LNs, have been identified as a potential source of human exposure to Salmonella enterica, when adipose trim containing these nodes is incorporated into ground beef. In order to gain a better understanding of the burden of S. enterica in peripheral LNs of feedlot and cull cattle, a cross-sectional study was undertaken in which 3327 subiliac LNs were collected from cattle at harvest in seven plants, located in three geographically distinct regions of the United States. Samples were collected in three seasons: Fall 2010, Winter/Spring 2011, and Summer/Fall 2011. A convenience sample of 76 LNs per day, 2 days per season (approximately 1 month apart), was collected per plant, from carcasses held in the cooler for no less than 24 h. Every 10(th) carcass half on a rail was sampled, in an attempt to avoid oversampling any single cohort of cattle. Median point estimates of S. enterica contamination were generally low (1.3%); however, median Salmonella prevalence was found to be greater in subiliac LNs of feedlot cattle (11.8%) compared to those of cull cattle (0.65%). Enumeration analysis of a subset of 618 feedlot cattle LNs showed that 67% of those harboring S. enterica (97 of 144) did so at concentrations ranging from <0.1 to 1.8 log10 CFU/g, while 33% carried a higher burden of S. enterica, with levels ranging from 1.9 to >3.8 log10 CFU/g. Serotyping of S. enterica isolated identified 24 serotypes, with the majority being Montevideo (44.0%) and Anatum (24.8%). Antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes were determined for all isolates, and the majority (86.1%) were pansusceptible; however, multidrug-resistant isolates (8.3%) were also occasionally observed. As Salmonella contained within LNs are protected from carcass interventions, research is needed to define opportunities for mitigating the risk of Salmonella contamination in LNs of apparently healthy cattle.Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 04/2013; 10(4):368-74. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lymph nodes (mandibular, mesenteric, mediastinal and subiliac; n=68), and fecal (n=68) and hide (n=35) samples were collected from beef carcasses harvested in an abattoir in Mexico. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella and presumptive colonies subjected to latex agglutination. Of the isolates recovered, a subset of 91 was characterized by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial susceptibility phenotyping. Salmonella was isolated from 100% (hide), 94.1% (feces), 91.2% (mesenteric), 76.5% (subiliac), 55.9% (mandibular), and 7.4% (mediastinal) of samples. From the 87 typable isolates, eight Salmonella serotypes were identified including Kentucky (32.2%), Anatum (29.9%), Reading (17.2%), Meleagridis (12.6%), Cerro (4.6%), Muenster (1.1%), Give (1.1%), Mbandaka (1.1%). S. Meleagridis was more likely (P=0.03) recovered from lymph nodes than feces or hides whereas S. Kentucky was more likely (P=0.02) recovered from feces and hides than lymph nodes. The majority (59.3%) of Salmonella was pansusceptible; however, multidrug resistance was observed in 13.2% of isolates. Typing by PFGE revealed that Salmonella generally clustered by serotype, but some serotypes (Anatum, Kentucky, Meleagridis and Reading) were comprised of multiple PFGE subtypes. Indistinguishable PFGE subtypes and, therefore, serotypes, were isolated from multiple sample types, and multiple PFGE subtypes were commonly observed within an animal. Given the over-representation of some serotypes within lymph nodes, we hypothesize that certain Salmonella may be better at entering the bovine host than other Salmonella or some may be more adapted for survival within lymph nodes. Our data provide insights into the ecology of Salmonella within cohorts of cattle and offers direction for intervention opportunities.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 06/2013; · 3.95 Impact Factor