"Iron is a trace element that has important functions in vivo. In the skeletal system, both excess and insufficient iron can reduce bone mass–. In vitro, iron can even inhibit the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hypomagnetic field is an extremely weak magnetic field-it is considerably weaker than the geomagnetic field. In deep-space exploration missions, such as those involving extended stays on the moon and interplanetary travel, astronauts will experience abnormal space environments involving hypomagnetic fields and microgravity. It is known that microgravity in space causes bone loss, which results in decreased bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether hypomagnetic fields affect the skeletal system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the complex effects of a hypomagnetic field and microgravity on bone loss. To study the effects of hypomagnetic fields on the femoral characteristics of rats in simulated weightlessness, we established a rat model of hindlimb unloading that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field. We used a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber to generate a hypomagnetic field of <300 nT. The results show that hypomagnetic fields can exacerbate bone mineral density loss and alter femoral biomechanical characteristics in hindlimb-unloaded rats. The underlying mechanism might involve changes in biological rhythms and the concentrations of trace elements due to the hypomagnetic field, which would result in the generation of oxidative stress responses in the rat. Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species would stimulate osteoblasts to secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and promote the maturation and activation of osteoclasts and thus eventually cause bone resorption.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105604. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105604 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"In other words, excess iron promoted the activity of osteoclasts, and then elevated bone resorption process, with resultant loss of bone strength. In terms of the molecular mechanisms, previous studies have demonstrated that intracellular iron retention would cause massive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through Fenton reaction (Fridovich, 1978; Galaris and Pantopoulos, 2008; Halliwell and Gutteridge, 1990), and ROS is postulated to be an instigator of bone resorption (Jia et al., 2012). Jia and colleagues demonstrated that iron overload could promote osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption through stimulation of ROS (Ishii et al., 2009; Yamasaki and Hagiwara, 2009). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is one of leading disorders among aged people. Bone loss results from a number of physiological alterations, such as estrogen decline and aging. Meanwhile, iron overload has been recognized as a risk factor for bone loss. Systemic iron homeostasis is fundamentally governed by the hepcidin-ferroportin regulatory axis, where hepcidin is the key regulator. Hepcidin deficiency could induce a few disorders, of which iron overload is the most representative phenotype. However, there was little investigation of the effects of hepcidin deficiency on bone metabolism. To this end, hepcidin-deficient (Hamp1(-/-)) mice were employed to address this issue. Our results revealed that significant iron overload was induced in Hamp1(-/-) mice. Importantly, significant decreases of maximal loading and maximal bending stress were found in Hamp1(-/-) mice relative to wildtype (WT) mice. Moreover, the levels of the C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-1) increased in Hamp1(-/-) mice. Therefore, hepcidin deficiency resulted in a marked reduction of bone load-bearing capacity likely through enhancing bone resorption, suggesting a direct correlation between hepcidin deficiency and bone loss. Targeting hepcidin or the pathway it modulates may thus represent a therapeutic for osteopenia or osteoporosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Iron overload has recently been connected with bone mineral density in osteoporosis. However, to date, the effect of iron overload on osteoblasts remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study is to examine osteoblast biological activity under iron overload. The osteoblast cells (hFOB1.19) were cultured in a medium supplemented with different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 μM) of ferric ammonium citrate as a donor of ferric ion. Intracellular iron was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorophotometry. Osteoblast biological activities were evaluated by measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and mineralization function. Results indicated that iron overload could consequently increase intracellular iron concentration and intracellular ROS levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, ALP activity was suppressed, and a decline in the number of mineralized nodules was observed in in vitro cultured osteoblast cells. According to these results, it seems that iron overload probably inhibits osteoblast function through higher oxidative stress following increased intracellular iron concentrations.
Biological trace element research 01/2013; 152(2). DOI:10.1007/s12011-013-9605-z · 1.75 Impact Factor
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