Ferric ion could facilitate osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption through the production of reactive oxygen species.
ABSTRACT Iron overload is widely regarded as a risk factor for osteoporosis. It has been demonstrated that iron can inhibit osteoblast differentiation. However, the effects of iron on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption remain controversial. In this study, we found that ferric ion promoted Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast (OC) formation in both RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs), and this effect was accompanied by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Moreover, this effect was attenuated by the administration of antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Therefore, we conclude that ferric ion can promote osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption through the production of ROS. © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 30:1843-1852, 2012.
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ABSTRACT: Bone formation and degradation are perfectly coordinated. In case of an imbalance of these processes diseases occur associated with exaggerated formation of new bone or bone loss as in osteoporosis. Most studies investigating osteoporosis either focus on osteoblast or osteoclast function and differentiation. Both processes have been suggested to be affected by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Besides a potentially harmful role of ROS, these small molecules are important second messengers. The family of NADPH oxidases produces ROS in a controlled and targeted manner, to specifically regulate signal transduction. This review will highlight the role of reactive oxygen species in bone cell differentiation and bone-loss associated disease with a special focus on osteoporosis and NADPH oxidases as specialized sources of ROS.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 08/2014; 72(1). · 5.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) plays a critical role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone development and bone regeneration. Previous studies have shown that 17β-estradiol activates the HIF-1α signaling pathway and that mice with conditional activation of the HIF-1α signaling pathway in osteoblasts are protected from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. In addition, it has been shown that hypoxia facilitates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and modulates Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of the HIF-1α signaling pathway by hypoxia-mimicking agents would prevent bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. In this study, we confirmed the effect of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a hypoxia-mimicking agent, on the HIF-1α signaling pathway and investigated the effect of DMOG on MSC osteogenic differentiation and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We then investigated the effect of DMOG treatment on OVX-induced bone loss. Female C57BL/6J mice were divided into sham, OVX, OVX+L-DMOG (5 mg/kg/day), and OVX+H-DMOG (20 mg/kg/day) groups. At sacrifice, static and dynamic bone histomorphometry were performed with micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and undecalcified sections, respectively. Bone strength was assessed with the three-point bending test, and femur vessels were reconstructed and analyzed by micro-CT. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteocalcin, and C-terminal telopeptides of collagen type(CTX) were measured by ELISA. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was used to assess osteoclast formation. Alterations in the HIF-1α and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways in the bone were detected by western blot. Our results showed that DMOG activated the HIF-1α signaling pathway, which further activated the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and enhanced MSC osteogenic differentiation. The micro-CT results showed that DMOG treatment improved trabecular bone density and restored the bone microarchitecture and blood vessels in OVX mice. Bone strength was also partly restored in DMOG-treated OVX mice. Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the femur metaphysic revealed that DMOG increased the mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. The serum levels of VEGF and osteocalcin were higher in DMOG-treated OVX mice. However, there were no significant differences in serum CTX or in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained cells between DMOG-treated OVX mice and OVX mice. Western blot results showed that DMOG administration partly rescued the decrease in HIF-1α and β-catenin expression following ovariectomy. Collectively, these results indicate that DMOG prevents bone loss due to ovariectomy in C57BL/6J mice by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis, which are associated with activated HIF-1α and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways.PLoS ONE 11/2014; 9(11):e112744. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A hypomagnetic field is an extremely weak magnetic field-it is considerably weaker than the geomagnetic field. In deep-space exploration missions, such as those involving extended stays on the moon and interplanetary travel, astronauts will experience abnormal space environments involving hypomagnetic fields and microgravity. It is known that microgravity in space causes bone loss, which results in decreased bone mineral density. However, it is unclear whether hypomagnetic fields affect the skeletal system. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the complex effects of a hypomagnetic field and microgravity on bone loss. To study the effects of hypomagnetic fields on the femoral characteristics of rats in simulated weightlessness, we established a rat model of hindlimb unloading that was exposed to a hypomagnetic field. We used a geomagnetic field-shielding chamber to generate a hypomagnetic field of <300 nT. The results show that hypomagnetic fields can exacerbate bone mineral density loss and alter femoral biomechanical characteristics in hindlimb-unloaded rats. The underlying mechanism might involve changes in biological rhythms and the concentrations of trace elements due to the hypomagnetic field, which would result in the generation of oxidative stress responses in the rat. Excessive levels of reactive oxygen species would stimulate osteoblasts to secrete receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and promote the maturation and activation of osteoclasts and thus eventually cause bone resorption.PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105604. · 3.53 Impact Factor