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Available from: J Steven Leeder, Aug 16, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: Phenytoin is a widely used antiepileptic drug with a narrow therapeutic index and large inter-patient variability partly due to genetic variations in CYP2C9. Furthermore, the variant allele HLA-B*15:02 is associated with an increased risk of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in response to phenytoin treatment. We summarize evidence from the published literature supporting these associations and provide recommendations for the use of phenytoin based on CYP2C9 and/or HLA-B genotype (also available on PharmGKB: www.pharmgkb.org).Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2014); Accepted article preview online 06 August 2014; doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.159.
    Clinical Pharmacology &#38 Therapeutics 08/2014; 96(5). DOI:10.1038/clpt.2014.159 · 7.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Importance The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown.Objective To investigate the genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.Design, Setting, and Participants Case-control study conducted in 2002-2014 among 105 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (n=61 Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and n=44 drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms), 78 cases with maculopapular exanthema, 130 phenytoin-tolerant control participants, and 3655 population controls from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A genome-wide association study (GWAS), direct sequencing of the associated loci, and replication analysis were conducted using the samples from Taiwan. The initial GWAS included samples of 60 cases with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions and 412 population controls from Taiwan. The results were validated in (1) 30 cases with severe cutaneous adverse reactions and 130 phenytoin-tolerant controls from Taiwan, (2) 9 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis and 2869 population controls from Japan, and (3) 6 cases and 374 population controls from Malaysia.Main Outcomes and Measures Specific genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.Results The GWAS discovered a cluster of 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in CYP2C genes at 10q23.33 that reached genome-wide significance. Direct sequencing of CYP2C identified missense variant rs1057910 (CYP2C9*3) that showed significant association with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions (odds ratio, 12; 95% CI, 6.6-20; P=1.1 × 10−17). The statistically significant association between CYP2C9*3 and phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions was observed in additional samples from Taiwan, Japan, and Malaysia. A meta-analysis using the data from the 3 populations showed an overall odds ratio of 11 (95% CI, 6.2-18; z=8.58; P < .00001) for CYP2C9*3 association with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. Delayed clearance of plasma phenytoin was detected in patients with severe cutaneous adverse reactions, especially CYP2C9*3 carriers, providing a functional link of the associated variants to the disease.Conclusions and Relevance This study identified CYP2C variants, including CYP2C9*3, known to reduce drug clearance, as important genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2014; 312(5):525-34. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.7859 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cytochrome P450 is the major enzyme involved in drug metabolism. CYP enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of most clinically used drugs. Individual variability in CYP activity is one important factor that contributes to drug therapy failure. We have developed a new straightforward TaqMan PCR genotyping assay to investigate the prevalence of the most common allelic variants of polymorphic CYP enzymes CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 in the Japanese population. Moreover, we focused on the combination of each genotype for clinical treatment. The genotype analysis identified a total of 139 out of 483 genotype combinations of five genes in the 1,003 Japanese subjects. According to our results, most of subjects seemed to require dose modification during clinical treatment. In the near future, modifications should be considered based on the individual patient genotype of each treatment.
    International journal of medical sciences 01/2015; 12(1):78-82. DOI:10.7150/ijms.10263 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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