Melatonin treatment alters glucosensing capacity and mRNA expression levels of peptides related to food intake control in rainbow trout hypothalamus.
ABSTRACT As demonstrated in previous studies, the functioning of brain glucosensing systems in rainbow trout is altered under stress conditions in a way that they are unable to respond properly to changes in glucose levels. Melatonin has been postulated as necessary for homeostatic control of energy metabolism in several vertebrate groups, and in fish it has been suggested as an anti-stress molecule. To evaluate the possible effects of melatonin on glucosensing, we have incubated hypothalamus and hindbrains of rainbow trout at different glucose concentrations in the presence of increased doses (0.01, 1, and 100nM) of melatonin assessing whether or not the responses to changes in glucose levels of parameters related to glucosensing (glucose, glycogen and glucose 6-phosphate levels, activities of GK, GSase and PK, and mRNA content of GK, GLUT2, Kir6.x-like, and SUR-like) are modified in the presence of melatonin. While no effects of melatonin were observed in hindbrain, in hypothalamus melatonin treatment up-regulated glucosensing parameters, especially under hypo- and normo-glycaemic conditions. The effects of melatonin in hypothalamus occurred apparently through MT(1) receptors since most effects were counteracted by the presence of luzindole but not by the presence of 4-P-PDOT. Moreover, melatonin treatment induced in hypothalamus increased mRNA expression levels of NPY and decreased mRNA levels of POMC, CART, and CRF. A role of the hormone in daily re-adjustment of hypothalamic glucosensor machinery is discussed.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Melatonin is a neuroendocrine transducer of circadian/circannual rhythms able to synchronize organism's physiological activity. On the basis of our recent findings on appetite regulation by melatonin in the zebrafish brain, the aim of this study was to evaluate melatonin's role in peripheral circuitries regulating food intake, growth, and lipid metabolism. For this purpose, the effect of two melatonin doses (100 nM and 1 μM) administered for 10 days, via water, to adult zebrafish was evaluated at both physiological and molecular levels. The major signals controlling energy homeostasis were analyzed together. Additionally, the effect of melatonin doses on muscle metabolic resources was evaluated. The results obtained indicate that melatonin reduces food intake by stimulating molecules involved in appetite inhibition, such as leptin (LPT), in the liver and intestine and MC4R, a melanocortin system receptor, in the liver. Moreover, melatonin decreases hepatic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression, involved in growth process and other signals involved in lipid metabolism such as proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, β, and γ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP). These results were correlated with lower levels of lipids in the muscles as evidenced by the macromolecular pools analyses. The findings obtained in this study could be of great interest for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms as the basis of food intake control and, in turn, can be a useful tool for medical and aquaculture applications.Zebrafish 05/2013; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess a possible antistress role of melatonin in fish, we orally administered melatonin to rainbow trout for 10 d and then kept the fish under normal or high stocking density conditions during the last 4 d. Food intake; biochemical parameters in plasma (cortisol, glucose, and lactate concentrations); liver (glucose and glycogen concentrations, and glycogen synthase activity); enzyme activities of amylase, lipase, and protease in foregut and midgut; and content of the hypothalamic neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, as well as their oxidized metabolites, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid, were evaluated under those conditions. High stocking density conditions alone induced changes indicative of stress conditions in plasma cortisol concentrations, liver glycogenolytic potential, the activities of some digestive enzymes, and the 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid-to-dopamine and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid-to-serotonin ratios in the hypothalamus. Melatonin treatment in nonstressed fish induced an increase in liver glycogenolytic potential, increased the activity of some digestive enzymes, and enhanced serotoninergic and dopaminergic metabolism in hypothalamus. The presence of melatonin in stressed fish resulted in a significant interaction with cortisol concentrations in plasma, glycogen content, and glycogen synthase activity in liver and dopaminergic and serotoninergic metabolism in the hypothalamus. In general, the presence of melatonin mitigated several of the effects induced by stress, supporting an antistress role for melatonin in rainbow trout.Domestic animal endocrinology 01/2014; 46:26-36. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Food intake in fish is a complex process regulated through many different factors including abundance of energy and nutrients. In recent years, evidence have been obtained in several fishes, mainly in rainbow trout, regarding the presence and functioning in brain areas of metabolic sensors informing about changes in the levels of nutrients like glucose and fatty acids. The activity of these sensors relate to the control of food intake through changes in the expression of anorexigenic and orexigenic neuropeptides. The present review will provide a picture of the main results obtained to date in these studies, as well as perspectives for future research in the field.General and Comparative Endocrinology 01/2014; · 2.82 Impact Factor