Direct Response to Proton Beam Linear Energy Transfer (LET) in a Novel Polymer Gel Dosimeter Formulation.
ABSTRACT Linear energy transfer (LET) of clinical proton beams is an important parameter influencing the biological effects of radiation. This work demonstrates LET-induced response enhance_ment in novel formulations of polymer gel dosimeters, potentially useful for LET mapping of clinical proton beams. A series of four polymer gel dosimeters (labeled A through D), prepared based on the BANG3-Pro2 formulation, but with varying concentrations of polymerization modifiers, were irradiated by a clinical proton beam with a spread out Bragg peak modulation (SOBP) and read out using the OCTOPUS-IQ optical CT scanner. The evaluation of optical density profiles in the SOBP (constant physical dose) revealed response deviations at the distal end consistent with variations in gel composition. Maximum response deviations were as follows: 23% (under-response) for gel A, and over-response of 2%, 12%, and 17% for gels B, C, and D, respectively, relative to the mean dose in the center of the SOBP. This enhancement in optical response was correlated to LET by analytical calculations. Gels A and B showed no measurable dependence on LET. Gel C responded linearly in the limited range from 1.5 to 3.5 keV/μm. LET response of gel D was linear up to at least 5.5 keV/μm, with the threshold at about 1.3 keV/μm. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop a polymer gel system with direct optical response to LET for mapping of LET distributions for particle therapy beams.
- SourceAvailable from: Jui-Ting Hsu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Polymer gels are regarded as a potential dosimeter for independent validation of absorbed doses in clinical radiotherapy. Several imaging modalities have been used to convert radiation-induced polymerization to absorbed doses from a macro-scale viewpoint. This study developed a novel dose conversion mechanism by texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The modified N-isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM) gels were prepared under normoxic conditions, and were administered radiation doses from 5 to 20 Gy. After freeze drying, the gel samples were sliced for SEM scanning with 50×, 500×, and 3500× magnifications. Four texture indices were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). The results showed that entropy and homogeneity were more suitable than contrast and energy as dose indices for higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. After parameter optimization, an R (2) value of 0.993 can be achieved for homogeneity using 500× magnified SEM images with 27 pixel offsets and no outlier exclusion. For dose verification, the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the measured dose for 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy were -7.60%, 5.80%, 2.53%, and -0.95%, respectively. We conclude that texture analysis can be applied to the SEM images of gel dosimeters to accurately convert micro-scale structural features to absorbed doses. The proposed method may extend the feasibility of applying gel dosimeters in the fields of diagnostic radiology and radiation protection.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(7):e67281. · 3.73 Impact Factor