Article

# Operator Product Expansion of Inflationary Correlators and Conformal Symmetry of de Sitter

Nuclear Physics B (Impact Factor: 3.95). 05/2012; 864(3). DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2012.07.004

Source: arXiv

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**ABSTRACT:**Consistency relations -- which relate an N-point function to a squeezed (N+1)-point function -- are useful in large scale structure (LSS) because of their non-perturbative nature: they hold even if the N-point function is deep in the nonlinear regime, and even if they involve astrophysically messy galaxy observables. The non-perturbative nature of the consistency relations is guaranteed by the fact that they are symmetry statements, in which the velocity plays the role of the soft pion. In this paper, we address two issues: (1) how to derive the relations systematically using the residual coordinate freedom in the Newtonian gauge, and relate them to known results in $\zeta$-gauge (often used in studies of inflation); (2) under what conditions the consistency relations are violated. In the non-relativistic limit, our derivation reproduces the Newtonian consistency relation discovered by Kehagias \& Riotto and Peloso & Pietroni. More generally, there is an infinite set of consistency relations, as is known in $\zeta$-gauge. There is a one-to-one correspondence between symmetries in the two gauges; in particular, the Newtonian consistency relation follows from the dilation and special conformal symmetries in $\zeta$-gauge. We probe the robustness of the consistency relations by studying models of galaxy dynamics and biasing. We give a systematic list of conditions under which the consistency relations are violated; violations occur if the galaxy bias is non-local in an infrared divergent way. We emphasize the relevance of the adiabatic mode condition, as distinct from symmetry considerations. As a by-product of our investigation, we discuss a simple fluid Lagrangian for LSS.Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 06/2014; 2014(09). · 5.88 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Inflation models make specific predictions for a tensor-scalar-scalar three-point correlation, or bispectrum, between one gravitational-wave (tensor) mode and two density-perturbation (scalar) modes. This tensor-scalar-scalar correlation leads to a local power quadrupole, an apparent departure from statistical isotropy in our Universe, as well as characteristic four-point correlations in the current mass distribution in the Universe. So far, the predictions for these observables have been worked out only for single-clock models in which certain consistency conditions between the tensor-scalar-scalar correlation and tensor and scalar power spectra are satisfied. Here we review the requirements on inflation models for these consistency conditions to be satisfied. We then consider several examples of inflation models, such as non-attractor and solid inflation models, in which these conditions are put to the test. In solid inflation the simplest consistency conditions are already violated whilst in the non-attractor model we find that, contrary to the standard scenario, the tensor-scalar-scalar correlator probes directly relevant model-dependent information. We work out the predictions for observables in these models. For non-attractor inflation we find an apparent local quadrupolar departure from statistical isotropy in large-scale structure but that this power quadrupole decreases very rapidly at smaller scales. The consistency of the CMB quadrupole with statistical isotropy then constrains the distance scale that corresponds to the transition from the non-attractor to attractor phase of inflation to be larger than the currently observable horizon. Solid inflation predicts clustering fossils signatures in the current galaxy distribution that may be large enough to be detectable with forthcoming, and possibly even current, galaxy surveys.Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 07/2014; 2014(12). · 5.88 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Using symmetry considerations, we derive Ward identities which relate the three point function of scalar perturbations produced during inflation to the scalar four point function, in a particular limit. The derivation assumes approximate conformal invariance, and the conditions for the slow roll approximation, but is otherwise model independent. The Ward identities allow us to deduce that the three point function must be suppressed in general, being of the same order of magnitude as in the slow roll model. They also fix the three point function in terms of the four point function, upto one constant which we argue is generically suppressed. Our approach is based on analyzing the wave function of the universe, and the Ward identities arise by imposing the requirements of spatial and time reparametrization invariance on it.10/2014;

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