Bisphenol A alters the development of the rhesus monkey mammary gland

Department of Anatomy and Cellular Biology, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02111, USA.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Impact Factor: 9.67). 05/2012; 109(21):8190-5. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1120488109
Source: PubMed


The xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) used in the manufacturing of various plastics and resins for food packaging and consumer products has been shown to produce numerous endocrine and developmental effects in rodents. Exposure to low doses of BPA during fetal mammary gland development resulted in significant alterations in the gland's morphology that varied from subtle ones observed during the exposure period to precancerous and cancerous lesions manifested in adulthood. This study assessed the effects of BPA on fetal mammary gland development in nonhuman primates. Pregnant rhesus monkeys were fed 400 μg of BPA per kg of body weight daily from gestational day 100 to term, which resulted in 0.68 ± 0.312 ng of unconjugated BPA per mL of maternal serum, a level comparable to that found in humans. At birth, the mammary glands of female offspring were removed for morphological analysis. Morphological parameters similar to those shown to be affected in rodents exposed prenatally to BPA were measured in whole-mounted glands; estrogen receptor (ER) α and β expression were assessed in paraffin sections. Student's t tests for equality of means were used to assess differences between exposed and unexposed groups. The density of mammary buds was significantly increased in BPA-exposed monkeys, and the overall development of their mammary gland was more advanced compared with unexposed monkeys. No significant differences were observed in ER expression. Altogether, gestational exposure to the estrogen-mimic BPA altered the developing mammary glands of female nonhuman primates in a comparable manner to that observed in rodents.

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    • "While no human data are currently available to confirm this postulate, one primate study has been reported. Female neonates born to rhesus monkeys exposed during pregnancy to orallydelivered BPA (400 µg/kg/day BW, ED100 to ED165) exhibit a significantly increased density of mammary buds [70]. These data are consistent with those at E18 in CD-1 mice [60]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The estrogenic properties of bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous synthetic monomer that can leach into the food and water supply, have prompted considerable research into exposure-associated health risks in humans. Endocrine-disrupting properties of BPA suggest it may impact developmental plasticity during early life, predisposing individuals to disease at doses below the oral reference dose (RfD) established by the Environmental Protection Agency in 1982. Herein, we review the current in vivo literature evaluating the carcinogenic properties of BPA. We conclude that there is substantial evidence from rodent studies indicating that early-life BPA exposures below the RfD lead to increased susceptibility to mammary and prostate cancer. Based on the definitions of "carcinogen" put forth by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program, we propose that BPA may be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen in the breast and prostate due to its tumor promoting properties.
    Reproductive Toxicology 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.09.006 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "However, a great variety of studies indicate that BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which mimics the function of hormone estradiol, binds to and activates estrogen receptor, and disrupts the endocrine system of human beings. Exposure to BPA is considered to be associated with many adverse effects including cardiovascular diseases, obesity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity and developmental problems [1] [3] [4]. As a result, health concerns about BPA have been raised and a BPA intake limit of 0.05 mg/kg/day has been set by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1993 [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: A ruthenium-mediated photoelectrochemical sensor was developed for the detection of BPA, using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as the recognition element, a tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticle-modified ITO as the electrode, and a blue 473-nm LED as the excitation light source. Photoelectrochemical oxidation of BPA on SnO2 electrode was achieved by [Ru(bpy)3](2+) under the irradiation of light. It was found that BPA was oxidized by Ru(3+) species produced in the photoelectrochemical reaction, resulting in the regeneration of Ru(2+) and the concomitant photocurrent enhancement. MIPs film was prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole on SnO2 electrode using BPA as the template. Surface morphology and properties of the as-prepared electrode were characterized by SEM, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and photocurrent measurement. In the presence of BPA, an enhanced photocurrent was observed, which was dependent on the amount of BPA captured on the electrode. A detection limit of 1.2 nM was obtained under the optimized conditions, with a linear range of 2-500 nM. Selectivity of the sensor was demonstrated by measuring five BPA analogs. To verify its practicality, this sensor was applied to analyze BPA spiked tap water and river water. With advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity, low-cost instrument, and facile sensor preparation procedure, this sensor is potentially suitable for the rapid monitoring of BPA in real environmental samples. Moreover, the configuration of this sensor is universal and can be extended to organic molecules that can be photoelectrochemically oxidized by Ru(3+). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Analytica chimica acta 08/2015; 887:59-66. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2015.05.051 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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    • "The widespread use of BPA and its permeation into food and environment from the storage and packaging materials lead to growing concerns about human health [1] [2] [3], because BPA is one of potent endocrine-disrupting compounds [3] which can mimic the action of hormone estrogen and disturb the estrogen–estrogen receptor binding process thereby being monitored by various techniques including gas chromatography [4], surface-enhanced Raman scattering [5], and so on [6]. Besides disturbing the human endocrine system, BPA is also associated with obesity, neurotoxicity , and even cancer [7] [8]. Therefore, development of analytical methods for BPA detection is an urgent undertaking. "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present work, a highly sensitive and selective biosensor based on aptamer-functionalized nanoporous gold film (NPGF) was successfully developed for direct electrochemical detection of bisphenol A (BPA). NPGF was prepared by dealloying Ag from Au/Ag alloy leaf in concentrated nitric acid. The obtained NPGF was attached onto glassy carbon electrode and then was functionalized with BPA-specific aptamer via the formation of AuS bond. The fabrication of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. NPGF exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the redox reaction of BPA, which ensured high sensitivity of the sensor. The aptamer-captured BPA showed a pair of redox peaks around 0.35/0.28V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The experimental parameters in terms of aptamer concentration, reaction time, pH, and temperature were optimized. The calibration plot showed a linear range from 0.1nM to 100nM BPA with a remarkable detection limit of 0.056±0.004nM BPA. Particularly, the successful application of the developed sensor for the detection of BPA in human serum samples suggests its promising potential for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Analytica Chimica Acta 05/2015; 883. DOI:10.1016/j.aca.2015.05.002 · 4.51 Impact Factor
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