Mania With and Without Depression in a Community Sample of US Adolescents
ABSTRACT CONTEXT: There are limited data on the manifestations of mania in general community samples of adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To present the prevalence and clinical correlates of mania with and without depressive episodes in a representative sample of US adolescents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of adolescents using a modified version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. PARTICIPANTS: Ten thousand one hundred twenty-three adolescents aged 13 to 18 years identified in household and school settings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mania/hypomania with or without depression among those who met DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I or II disorder or major depressive disorder. RESULTS: Two and a half percent of youth met criteria for lifetime bipolar I or II disorder and 1.7%, for mania only. Twelve-month rates of mania with and without depression were 2.2% and 1.3%, respectively. There was a nearly 2-fold increase in rates of mania from ages 13-14 to 17-18 years. Mania with depression was associated with a greater number of all indictors of clinical severity including symptom number and severity, role disability, severe impairment, comorbidity, and treatment compared with depression alone, whereas correlates of mania were similar among those with mania with or without depression. CONCLUSIONS: The increasing prevalence of bipolar disorder with increasing age and the comparable rate of bipolar disorder with those of adult samples highlight adolescence as the peak period of onset of mania. The clinical significance of mania plus depression as demonstrated by a 1 in 5 suicide attempt rate and nearly 2 months per year of role impairment in adolescence has important implications for early intervention. The evidence for independence of mania from depression warrants additional scrutiny in the diagnostic nomenclature and etiologic dissection of bipolar disorder.
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ABSTRACT: The diagnostic classification of mood disorders by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR) had two major shortcomings: an underdiagnosis of bipolar disorders and a large proportion of treated patients had to be allocated to the vague NOS groups 'not otherwise specified'. Several new subthreshold groups of depression, bipolar disorders and mixed states are now operationally defined in DSM-5. In addition, hypomanic and manic episodes occurring during antidepressant treatments are, under certain conditions, accepted as criteria for bipolar disorders. The diagnosis of bipolarity now requires, as entry criterion A, not only the presence of elated or irritable mood but also the association of these symptoms with increased energy/activity. This restriction will unfortunately change the diagnoses of some patients from DSM-IV bipolar I and II disorders to subdiagnostic bipolar syndromes. Nonetheless, overall, DSM-5 is a step in the right direction, specifying more subdiagnostic categories with an improved dimensional approach to severity. DSM-5 may also have an impact on patient selection for placebo-controlled drug trials with antidepressants.
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ABSTRACT: In the classification of mood disorders, major depressive disorder is separate from bipolar disorders whereas mania is not. Studies on pure mania are therefore rare. Our paper reviews the evidence for distinguishing pure mania (M) and mania with mild depression (Md) from bipolar disorder. Two large epidemiological studies found a prevalence of 1.7-1.8 % of M/Md in adolescents and adults. Several clinical follow-up studies demonstrated good stability of the diagnosis after a previous history of three manic episodes. Compared to bipolar disorder, manic disorder is characterised by a weaker family history for depression, an earlier onset, fewer recurrences and better remission, and is less comorbid with anxiety disorders. In addition, mania is strongly associated with a hyperthymic temperament, manifests more psychotic symptoms and is more often treated with antipsychotics. Twin and family studies find mania to be more heritable than depression and show no significant transmission from depression to mania or from mania to depression. Cardiovascular mortality is elevated among patients with mood disorders generally and is highest among those with mania. In non-Western countries, mania and the manic episodes in bipolar disorder are reported to occur more frequently than in Western countries.European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00406-015-0577-1 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder is characterized by debilitating episodes of depression and mood elevation (mania or hypomania). For most patients, depressive symptoms are more pervasive than mood elevation or mixed symptoms, and thus have been reported in individual studies to impose a greater burden on affected individuals, caregivers, and society. This article reviews and compiles the literature on the prevalence and burden of syndromal as well as subsyndromal presentations of depression in bipolar disorder patients. The PubMed database was searched for English-language articles using the search terms "bipolar disorder," "bipolar depression," "burden," "caregiver burden," "cost," "costs," "economic," "epidemiology," "prevalence," "quality of life," and "suicide." Search results were manually reviewed, and relevant studies were selected for inclusion as appropriate. Additional references were obtained manually from reviewing the reference lists of selected articles found by computerized search. In aggregate, the findings support the predominance of depressive symptoms compared with mood elevation/mixed symptoms in the course of bipolar illness, and thus an overall greater burden in terms of economic costs, functioning, caregiver burden, and suicide. This review, although comprehensive, provides a study-wise aggregate (rather than a patient-wise meta-analytic) summary of the relevant literature on this topic. In light of its pervasiveness and prevalence, more effective and aggressive treatments for bipolar depression are warranted to mitigate its profound impact upon individuals and society. Such studies could benefit by including metrics not only for mood outcomes, but also for illness burden. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Journal of Affective Disorders 12/2014; 169S1:S3-S11. DOI:10.1016/S0165-0327(14)70003-5 · 3.76 Impact Factor