Healthy lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States. Prev Med

Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.09). 04/2012; 55(1):23-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.04.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the links between three fundamental healthy lifestyle behaviors (not smoking, healthy diet, and adequate physical activity) and all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults in the United States.
We used data from 8375 U.S. participants aged ≥ 20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who were followed through 2006.
During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 745 deaths occurred. Compared with their counterparts, the risk for all-cause mortality was reduced by 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%-70%) among adults who were nonsmokers, 47% (95% CI: 36%, 57%) among adults who were physically active, and 26% (95% CI: 4%, 42%) among adults who consumed a healthy diet. Compared with participants who had no healthy behaviors, the risk decreased progressively as the number of healthy behaviors increased. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 0.60 (0.38, 0.95), 0.45 (0.30, 0.67), and 0.18 (0.11, 0.29) for 1, 2, and 3 healthy behaviors, respectively.
Adults who do not smoke, consume a healthy diet, and engage in sufficient physical activity can substantially reduce their risk for early death.

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    • "The evidence on the role of particular lifestyles, smoking, binge drinking, lack of physical activity, and poor health care seeking, in increased risks for mortality and morbidity is compelling [1]. Understanding the pathways through which these various " unhealthy " behaviours affect health is complicated by the broader ecological context in which they occur. "
    09/2015; 2015:598672. DOI:10.1155/2015/598672
    • ") to cardiovascular disease (Alberg and Samet 2003; Ambrose and Barua 2004; Blair et al. 1996) and diabetes (Hu et al. 2001; Magliano et al. 2008), and are also associated with higher all-cause mortality (Ford et al. 2012) as well as reductions in physical functioning (Paterson and Warburton 2010) and cognitive reserve (Lee et al. 2010). Indeed, smoking alone may explain as much as 25% of the risk of mortality at midlife (Jha et al. 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Education is a fundamental cause of social inequalities in health because it influences the distribution of resources, including money, knowledge, power, prestige, and beneficial social connections, that can be used in situ to influence health. Recent studies have highlighted early-life cognition as commonly indicating the propensity for educational attainment and determining health and age of mortality. Health behaviors provide a plausible mechanism linking both education and cognition to later-life health and mortality. We examine the role of education and cognition in predicting smoking, heavy drinking, and physical inactivity at midlife using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (N = 10,317), National Survey of Health and Development (N = 5,362), and National Childhood Development Study (N = 16,782). Adolescent cognition was associated with education but was inconsistently associated with health behaviors. Education, however, was robustly associated with improved health behaviors after adjusting for cognition. Analyses highlight structural inequalities over individual capabilities when studying health behaviors. © American Sociological Association 2015.
    Journal of Health and Social Behavior 09/2015; 56(3):323-40. DOI:10.1177/0022146515594188 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Health risk behaviours like smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity and unhealthy diet are associated with physical disorders , such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer (Mokdad et al., 2004; Ford et al., 2012; Lim et al., 2013). Less conventional is the association of these health risk behaviours (HRBs) with mental disorders, yet the evidence for this is growing (Walsh, 2011; Berk et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Health risk behaviours tend to co-occur and are found to be related to mental health symptoms. This is the first study to identify health behaviour clusters in relation to mental disorders. Methods: Data were used from the second wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2), a nationally representative sample of adults (n=5303). Latent class analysis was performed to identify clusters based on four health risk behaviours (smoking, heavy drinking, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet). Concurrently, we examined the relationship between the identified clusters and a range of DSM-IV diagnoses, assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Results: Four distinct health behaviour clusters were identified: most healthy (mainly non-smokers, moderate drinkers, active, healthy diet; class 1: 79.3%); smokers, moderate drinkers, inactive, unhealthy diet (class 2: 13.2%); smokers, heavy episodic drinkers, active, unhealthy diet (class 3: 3.8%); Smokers, frequent heavy drinkers, active, low fruit (class 4: 3.6%). Despite their different lifestyles, individuals in all three unhealthy clusters had double the risk of depression. Unhealthy behaviour clusters were strongly associated with drug dependence (classes 2 and 3), alcohol abuse and dependence (classes 3 and 4), and social phobia (class 4). Limitations: Due to the cross-sectional design, no conclusions about the causality of the relationship between HRB clusters and mental disorders can be drawn from the current study. Conclusions: Health behaviour clusters are strongly associated with mental disorders. This co-existence of behaviours and disorders emphasises the importance of an integrative approach in the prevention of mental illnesses.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 171C:111-119. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.031 · 3.38 Impact Factor
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