Healthy lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States.

Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Preventive Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.93). 04/2012; 55(1):23-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.04.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the links between three fundamental healthy lifestyle behaviors (not smoking, healthy diet, and adequate physical activity) and all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults in the United States.
We used data from 8375 U.S. participants aged ≥ 20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who were followed through 2006.
During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 745 deaths occurred. Compared with their counterparts, the risk for all-cause mortality was reduced by 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%-70%) among adults who were nonsmokers, 47% (95% CI: 36%, 57%) among adults who were physically active, and 26% (95% CI: 4%, 42%) among adults who consumed a healthy diet. Compared with participants who had no healthy behaviors, the risk decreased progressively as the number of healthy behaviors increased. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 0.60 (0.38, 0.95), 0.45 (0.30, 0.67), and 0.18 (0.11, 0.29) for 1, 2, and 3 healthy behaviors, respectively.
Adults who do not smoke, consume a healthy diet, and engage in sufficient physical activity can substantially reduce their risk for early death.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To study the influence of healthy lifestyle behaviour on the prognosis of occasional low back pain among men and women in a general population. Cohort study with a 4-year follow-up. General population in Stockholm County, Sweden. The study sample comprised 3938 men and 5056 women aged 18-84 from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort reporting occasional low back pain in the baseline questionnaire 2006. Lifestyle factors and potential confounders were assessed at baseline. The lifestyle factors smoking habits, alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity and consumption of fruit and vegetables were dichotomised using recommendations for a health-enhancing lifestyle and combined to form the exposure variable 'healthy lifestyle behaviour'. The exposure was categorised into five levels according to the number of healthy lifestyle factors met. The follow-up questionnaire in 2010 gave information about the outcome, long duration troublesome low back pain. Crude and adjusted binomial regression models were applied to estimate the association between the exposure and the outcome analysing men and women separately. The risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain decreased with increasing healthy lifestyle behaviour (trend test: p=0.006). 21% (28/131) among women with no healthy lifestyle factor (reference) experienced the outcome compared to 9% (36/420) among women with all four factors. Compared to the reference group, the risk was reduced by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.96) for women with one healthy lifestyle factor and 52% (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77) for women with all four healthy lifestyle factors. There were no clear associations found among men. Healthy lifestyle behaviour seems to decrease the risk of developing long duration troublesome low back pain among women with occasional low back pain and may be recommended to improve the prognosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to
    BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e005713. · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Health promotion and disease prevention have huge impact on health, yet given low priority, risk being overlooked in universal health coverage efforts. To effectively prioritize promotion and prevention, strong cadres of personnel are needed with expertise in legislation and health policy, social and behavior change communication, prevention and community health, health journalism, environmental health, and multisectoral health promotion.
    Global Health: Science and Practice 02/2014; 2(1):10-22.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Health risk behaviours tend to co-occur and are found to be related to mental health symptoms. This is the first study to identify health behaviour clusters in relation to mental disorders.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 171C:111-119. · 3.71 Impact Factor