Healthy lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality among adults in the United States
ABSTRACT To examine the links between three fundamental healthy lifestyle behaviors (not smoking, healthy diet, and adequate physical activity) and all-cause mortality in a national sample of adults in the United States.
We used data from 8375 U.S. participants aged ≥ 20 years of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002 who were followed through 2006.
During a mean follow-up of 5.7 years, 745 deaths occurred. Compared with their counterparts, the risk for all-cause mortality was reduced by 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35%-70%) among adults who were nonsmokers, 47% (95% CI: 36%, 57%) among adults who were physically active, and 26% (95% CI: 4%, 42%) among adults who consumed a healthy diet. Compared with participants who had no healthy behaviors, the risk decreased progressively as the number of healthy behaviors increased. Adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence interval were 0.60 (0.38, 0.95), 0.45 (0.30, 0.67), and 0.18 (0.11, 0.29) for 1, 2, and 3 healthy behaviors, respectively.
Adults who do not smoke, consume a healthy diet, and engage in sufficient physical activity can substantially reduce their risk for early death.
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ABSTRACT: Health risk behaviours tend to co-occur and are found to be related to mental health symptoms. This is the first study to identify health behaviour clusters in relation to mental disorders.Journal of Affective Disorders 09/2014; 171C:111-119. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.031
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ABSTRACT: To study relations between lifestyle factors (smoking, drinking, exercise, vegetable consumption, social relations) and global self-rated health in the adult Swedish population. The data come from the Swedish Level of Living Survey, a face-to-face panel study. The analysis follows respondents with good health in 1991(N=4,035) and uses multivariate logistic regression to assess relations between lifestyle factors in 1991 and health in 2000 and 2010. Baseline (1991) exercise, social support, smoking and vegetable consumption are associated with health in 2000 and/or 2010. 2000: Weekly exercise in 1991 increases the probability of good health by 6 percentage points [95% CI: 1-10] compared to no exercise, and smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day decreases the probability of good health by 5 percentage points [95%CI 1-8]. Lacking social support decreases the probability of good health by 17 percentage points (95% CI: 9-25). 2010: Smoking 10 or more cigarettes a day decreases the probability of good health by 10 percentage points [95% CI 5-15], and eating vegetables every day increases the probability of good health by 4 percentage points [95% CI 0.2-7] CONCLUSIONS: Exercise, smoking, social support and vegetable consumption are related to self-rated health 2000 and/or 2010.Preventive Medicine 09/2013; 57(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.09.002
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A 22-week federally qualified health center (FQHC)-based farmers' market (FM) and personal financial incentive intervention designed to improve access to and consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) among low-income diabetics in rural South Carolina was evaluated. METHODS: A mixed methods, one-group, repeated-measures design was used. Data were collected in 2011 before (May/June), during (August), and after (November) the intervention with 41 diabetes patients from the FQHC. FV consumption was assessed using a validated National Cancer Institute FV screener modified to include FV sold at the FM. Sales receipts were recorded for all FM transactions. A mixed-model, repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess intervention effects on FV consumption. Predictors of changes in FV consumption were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS: A marginally significant (p=0.07) average increase of 1.6 servings of total FV consumption per day occurred. The odds of achieving significant improvements in FV consumption increased for diabetics using financial incentives for payment at the FM (OR: 38.8, 95% CI: 3.4-449.6) and for those frequenting the FM more often (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.0). CONCLUSIONS: Results reveal a dose-response relationship between the intervention and FV improvements and emphasize the importance of addressing economic barriers to food access.Preventive Medicine 02/2013; 56(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.018