Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Concomitant Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Clopidogrel in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
ABSTRACT Conclusions from clinical studies and previous meta-analyses were inconsistent regarding the cardiovascular effects of concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and clopidogrel. As new studies are constantly emerging, we performed this meta-analysis to further assess the cardiovascular effects of concomitant use of PPIs and clopidogrel with a focus on individual PPIs.
A systematic electronic literature search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) to identify the studies reporting on the association of concomitant use of PPIs and clopidogrel with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. A hand search of reference lists was performed to identify further studies. Only studies published in English or Chinese were included in this review.
Twenty seven full-text articles and five abstracts with 159,998 patients were included in meta-analysis. Concomitant use of PPIs and clopidogrel is associated with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events (MACE) (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.19-1.64; OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.13-1.42) and acute coronary syndrome (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77; OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.08-1.87) but not with all-cause mortality (HR 1.30, 95% CI 0.91-1.86; OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.82-1.04), cardiovascular death (HR 1.21, 95% CI 0.60-2.43) and stent thrombosis (HR 1.52, 95% CI 0.87-2.65). In the analyses of individual PPIs, none of the PPIs is associated with an increased MACE risk except for pantoprazole (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.18-1.94).
Concomitant use of PPIs and clopidogrel in patients with coronary artery disease is associated with an increased risk of MACE or acute coronary syndrome, but there is insufficient evidence to conclude that there is an interaction between individual PPIs and clopidogrel.
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ABSTRACT: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and antiplatelet agents, especially aspirin and clopidogrel, are among the most prescribed medications worldwide. Their co-administration is justified by the increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding related to the antiplatelet therapy. The issue of the interaction between PPI and clopidogrel has been raised with the emergence of the concept of "high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity" (or "clopidogrel resistance") together with the discovery of the role of CYP2C19 isoform in the pharmacokinetics of those two medications. Indeed, CYP2C19 is involved in the conversion of the clopidogrel pro-drug into its active metabolite and is involved in the metabolisation of PPI into inactive metabolites, acting as substrates/inhibitors of CYP2C19. Despite their heterogeneity, most pharmacodynamic studies have shown a decreased clopidogrel antiplatelet effect when associated to PPI, especially those with the highest CYP2C19 inhibiting activity (omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole). On the other hand, clinical studies are inconclusive. Retrospective studies have shown an increased risk of major cardiovascular events or mortality when clopidogrel and PPI are associated in comparison with clopidogrel alone, particularly in the patients with the higher cardiovascular risk. However, the two prospective randomized studies published so far did not find any interaction and confirmed the benefit of PPI on the gastrointestinal bleeding. As a conclusion, as the clinical studies are not conclusive, the French health authorities have recently removed the alert about this interaction. PPI and clopidogrel can thus be co-prescribed.La Revue de Médecine Interne 11/2012; 34(2). DOI:10.1016/j.revmed.2012.11.001 · 1.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel reduces cardiovascular events following an acute coronary syndrome or stent implantation, but the associated increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding often leads clinicians to the co-administration of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). PPIs have been shown to decrease antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel ex vivo, raising doubts on the safety of this drug combination. Clinical trials investigating PPI-clopidogrel interaction have provided conflicting results and have been often criticized. Moreover, a prospective, double-bind, randomized, placebo-controlled study conducted with adequate follow-up and sample size has not yet been performed. Indeed, the COGENT trial, which would have had such characteristics, has been stopped prematurely. The question is therefore still unresolved, and clinical effects of PPI-clopidogrel interaction cannot be excluded. As a practical consequence, this combination therapy is recommended only for patients at high risk of bleeding (prior upper gastrointestinal bleeding, advanced age, concomitant use of warfarin, steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Helicobacter pylori infection), avoiding in any case PPIs with greater affinity for CYP2C19, such as omeprazole and esomeprazole.Giornale italiano di cardiologia (2006) 12/2012; 13(12):817-26. DOI:10.1714/1188.13165
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ABSTRACT: CYP2C19 is involved in the metabolism of clinically relevant drugs, including the antiplatelet prodrug clopidogrel, which has prompted interest in clinical CYP2C19 genotyping. The CYP2C19∗4B allele is defined by both gain-of-function [c.−806C>T (∗17)] and loss-of-function [c.1A>G (∗4)] variants on the same haplotype; however, current genotyping and sequencing assays are unable to determine the phase of these variants. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an assay that could rapidly detect and discriminate the related ∗4A, ∗4B, and ∗17 alleles. An allele-specific PCR assay, composed of four unique primer mixes that specifically interrogate the defining ∗17 and ∗4 variants, was developed by using samples (n = 20) with known genotypes, including the ∗4A, ∗4B, and/or ∗17 alleles. The assay was validated by testing 135 blinded samples, and the results were correlated with CYP2C19 genotyping and allele-specific cloning/sequencing. Importantly, among the six ∗4 carriers in the validation cohort, after allele-specific PCR testing both samples with a ∗1/∗4 genotype were reclassified to ∗1/∗4A, all three samples with a ∗4/∗17 genotype were reclassified to ∗1/∗4B, and a sample with a ∗4/∗17/∗17 genotype was reclassified to ∗4B/∗17. In conclusion, this rapid and robust allele-specific PCR assay can refine CYP2C19 genotyping and metabolizer phenotype classification by determining the phase of the defining ∗17 and ∗4 variants, which may have utility when testing CYP2C19 for clopidogrel response.