Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Events During Testosterone Administration in Older Men With Mobility Limitation.
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Testosterone in Older Men with Mobility Limitations Trial found an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in men randomized to testosterone, resulting in enrollment cessation by trial's Data and Safety Monitoring Board. We evaluated changes in gonadal hormones and markers of inflammation and coagulation to elucidate risk factors associated with cardiovascular events. METHODS: Men aged 65 years or more, with mobility limitation, total testosterone 100-350 ng/dL, or free testosterone less than 50 pg/mL, were randomized to placebo or 10 g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Changes in total and free testosterone, estradiol and estrone, C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and pro-brain naturetic peptide were compared between groups and within the testosterone group between subjects who experienced cardiovascular events and those who did not. RESULTS: Of 209 men randomized (mean age 74 years), gonadal hormones and biomarkers were available in 179 men. Baseline body mass index, gonadal hormones, lipids, Framingham risk scores, and other biomarkers were similar in the two treatment groups. Within the testosterone group, the 6-month increase in free testosterone was significantly greater in men who experienced cardiovascular events than in those who did not [mean (95% confidence interval), 10.6 (4.6-16.7) vs 5.2 (3.0-7.5) ng/dL, p = .05]. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the change in the serum levels of free testosterone was associated with cardiovascular events. CONCLUSION: Mobility-limited older men who experienced cardiovascular events had greater increases in serum free testosterone levels than those who did not.
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ABSTRACT: The platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor is a key mediator of platelet aggregation and intracoronary thrombosis. Studies have suggested that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may increase coronary events in postmenopausal women. We sought to characterize the relationship between the estrogen concentration expected in HRT and platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation studies were performed using epinephrine on 30 healthy individuals (15 Pl(A1/A1) and 15 Pl(A1/A2)) before and after incubation with beta-estradiol (E2) (10(-11) mol/L). The effect of E2 10(-11) mol/L on Pl(A1/A1) platelets demonstrated a significant increase (P = .03) in aggregation compared with baseline. In contrast, with the same concentration of E2, aggregation of Pl(A1/A2) platelets decreased significantly compared with baseline (P < .0001). Estrogen concentration similar to that expected in HRT resulted in an increase in platelet aggregation in Pl(A1/A1) individuals, but not in Pl(A1/A2) individuals. The data may provide further insight for the increase in coronary events seen in HRT clinical trials and suggest that further evaluation is needed to better define the role of pharmacogenetics in HRT.American heart journal 08/2006; 152(1):136-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Symptoms of fluid retention in GH-deficient patients during GH replacement are greater in men than in women, suggesting that testosterone may augment or estradiol may attenuate the antinatriuretic actions of GH. The mechanisms underlying the sodium-retaining effects of GH are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of GH and testosterone, alone and in combination, on extracellular water (ECW) and the hormonal mechanisms involved. Two separate, open-label, randomized, two-period, crossover studies were performed; the first compared the effects of GH alone with those of GH and testosterone, and the second compared the effects of testosterone alone with those of GH and testosterone. Twelve hypopituitary men with GH deficiency and hypogonadism were studied. During the weeks of intervention, GH (0.5 mg/d) and testosterone enanthate (250 mg) were administered by im injection. The outcome measures were ECW, IGF-I, plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (Aldo), and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). GH treatment significantly increased (P < 0.05) both IGF-I and ECW, and these changes were enhanced by cotreatment with testosterone (P = 0.07 for both). PRA, Aldo, and ANP levels did not change. Testosterone treatment alone did not change the IGF-I concentration, whereas cotreatment with GH induced a marked increase. Testosterone alone increased (P < 0.05) ECW, and the effect was augmented (P < 0.01) by cotreatment with GH. Although PRA and ANP did not change, plasma Aldo decreased after single and combined treatments. GH and testosterone exerted independent and additive effects on ECW. The mechanisms of fluid retention for both hormones are likely to be exerted on the renal tubules. This is the first direct evidence that testosterone increases ECW.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 07/2005; 90(7):3989-94. · 6.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although serum testosterone levels decrease acutely in critically ill patients, estrogen levels rise. We hypothesized that increased rates of aromatization of androgens to estrogens underlie the increase in serum estrogen levels. Eleven men and three women (age 42-69 yr) were prospectively studied before and again after elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). Each patient received priming doses of [(14)C]androgen and [(3)H]estrogen that were immediately followed by peripheral infusions for 210 min. Eight men and three women received androstenedione (A(4))/estrone (E(1)) and three men received testosterone (T)/estradiol (E(2)). Adipose tissue biopsies were obtained in another six men before and after CABG to evaluate levels of P450 aromatase mRNA. Serum T levels decreased postoperatively in all 17 men (P < 0.001), whereas E(1) levels rose (P = 0.004), with a trend toward a rise in E(2) (P = 0.23). Peripheral aromatization rates of androgens to estrogens rose markedly in all 14 patients (P < 0.0001). Estrogen clearance rates rose (P < 0.002). Mean serum A(4) levels increased slightly postoperatively (P = 0.04), although no increase in A(4) production rates (PRs) was observed. T PRs decreased in two of three men, whereas clearance rates increased in all three. Adipose tissue P450 aromatase mRNA content increased postoperatively (P < 0.001). We conclude that the primary cause of increased estrogen levels in acute illness is increased aromatase P450 gene expression, resulting in enhanced aromatization of androgens to estrogens, a previously undescribed endocrine response to acute illness. Both increased T clearance and decreased T production contribute to decreased serum T levels. Animal studies suggest that these opposing changes in circulating estrogen and androgen levels may be important to reduce morbidity and mortality in critical illness.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 09/2006; 291(3):E631-8. · 4.51 Impact Factor