Protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide on neonatal rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion
ABSTRACT This study investigated the protective effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on alleviating injury from oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/RP) in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Cultured hippocampal neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 2 h followed by a 24 h re-oxygenation. The MTT assay and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release were used to determine the neuron viability. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined by spectrophotometry using commercial kits. Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in hippocampal neurons were measured using the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM). Treatment with LBP (10-40 mg/l) significantly attenuated neuronal damage and inhibited LDH release in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, LBP enhanced activities of SOD and GSH-PX but it decreased their MDA content, inhibited [Ca(2+)](i) elevation and decrease of MMP in ischemia-reperfusion treated hippocampal neurons. These findings suggested that LBP may be a potential neuroprotective agent for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on focal cerebral ischemic injury in mice and to explore its possible mechanism. Male ICR mice were used to make the model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) after intragastric administration with LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and Nimodipine (0.4 mg/kg) for seven successive days. After 24 h of reperfusion, neurological scores were estimated and infarct volumes were measured by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Morphological changes in ischemic brains were performed for hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The number of apoptotic neurons was detected by TUNEL staining. The Bax, Bcl-2 protein expression and CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1 activation were investigated by immunofluorescence and western-blot analysis. LBP (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment groups significantly reduced infract volume and neurological deficit scores. LBP also relieved neuronal morphological damage and attenuated the neuronal apoptosis. LBP at the dose of 40 mg/kg significantly suppressed overexpression of Bax, CytC, Caspase-3, -9 and cleaved PARP-1, and inhibited the reduction of Bcl-2 expression. Based on these findings we propose that LBP protects against focal cerebral ischemic injury by attenuating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e90780. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0090780 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study aims to investigate the effect of noscapine (0.5-2.5μM), an alkaloid from the opium poppy, on primary murine fetal cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia. Cells were transferred to glucose-free DMEM and were exposed to hypoxia in a small anaerobic chamber. Cell viability and nitric oxide production were evaluated by MTT assay and the Griess method, respectively. The neurotoxicities produced by all three hypoxia durations tested were significantly inhibited by 0.5μM noscapine. Increasing noscapine concentration up to 2.5μM produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of neurotoxicity. Pretreatment of cells with MK-801 (10μM), a non-competitive NMDA antagonist, and nimodipine (10nM), an L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers, increased cell viability after 30min OGD, while the application of NBQX (30μM), a selective AMPA-kainate receptor antagonist partially attenuated cell injury. Subsequently, cells treated with noscapine in the presence of thapsigargin (1μM), an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases. After 60min OGD, noscapine could inhibit the cell damage induced by thapsigargin. However, noscapine could not reduce cell damage induced by 240min OGD in the presence of thapsigargin. Noscapine attenuated nitric oxide (NO) production in cortical neurons after 30min OGD. We concluded that noscapine had a neuroprotective effect, which could be due to its interference with multiple targets in the excitotoxicity process. These effects could be mediated partially by a decrease in NO production and the modulation of intracellular calcium levels. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.Pharmacological reports: PR 10/2014; 67(2). DOI:10.1016/j.pharep.2014.10.011 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People's Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. LBPs may potentiate the efficacy of lymphokine activated killer/interleukin-2 combination therapy in cancer patients. LBPs exhibit significant hypoglycemic effects and insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and promoting pancreatic β-cell proliferation. They protect retinal ganglion cells in experimental models of glaucoma. LBPs protect the liver from injuries due to exposure to toxic chemicals or other insults. They also show potent immunoenhancing activities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LBPs protect against neuronal injury and loss induced by β-amyloid peptide, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemic/reperfusion, and other neurotoxic insults. LBPs ameliorate the symptoms of mice with Alzheimer's disease and enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, improving learning and memory abilities. They reduce irradiation- or chemotherapy-induced organ toxicities. LBPs are beneficial to male reproduction by increasing the quality, quantity, and motility of sperm, improving sexual performance, and protecting the testis against toxic insults. Moreover, LBPs exhibit hypolipidemic, cardioprotective, antiviral, and antiinflammatory activities. There is increasing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies supporting the therapeutic and health-promoting effects of LBPs, but further mechanistic and clinical studies are warranted to establish the dose-response relationships and safety profiles of LBPs.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 01/2015; 9:33-78. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S72892 · 3.03 Impact Factor