Long-Term Nicotine Exposure Depresses Dopamine Release in Nonhuman Primate Nucleus Accumbens
ABSTRACT Tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide. However, current smoking cessation therapies have very limited long-term success rates. Considerable research effort is therefore focused on identification of central nervous system changes with nicotine exposure because this may lead to more successful treatment options. Although recent work suggests that α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play a dominant role in dopaminergic function in rodent nucleus accumbens, the effects of long-term nicotine exposure remain to be determined. Here, we used cyclic voltammetry to investigate α6β2* nAChR-mediated release with long-term nicotine treatment in nonhuman primate nucleus accumbens shell. Control studies showed that nAChR-mediated dopamine release occurs predominantly through the α6β2* receptor subtype. Unexpectedly, there was a complete loss of α6β2* nAChR-mediated activity after several months of nicotine treatment. This decline in function was observed with both single- and multiple-pulse-stimulated dopamine release. Paired-pulse studies showed that the facilitation of dopamine release with multiple pulsing observed in controls in the presence of nAChR antagonist was lost with long-term nicotine treatment. Nicotine-evoked [(3)H]dopamine release from nucleus accumbens synaptosomes was similar in nicotine- and vehicle-treated monkeys, indicating that long-term nicotine administration does not directly modify α6β2* nAChR-mediated dopamine release. Dopamine uptake rates, as well as dopamine transporter and α6β2* nAChRs levels, were also not changed with nicotine administration. These data indicate that nicotine exposure, as occurs with smoking, has major effects on cellular mechanisms linked to α6β2* nAChR-mediated dopamine release and that this receptor subtype may represent a novel therapeutic target for smoking cessation.
SourceAvailable from: Xiomara Perez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: An important factor contributing to the high relapse rates among smokers is nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Multiple studies suggest that decreased dopamine release in nucleus accumbens plays a key role in withdrawal. However, recent reports showed that long-term nicotine exposure itself also decreases accumbal dopamine release, suggesting that additional mechanisms are involved in withdrawal. Here, we used real-time cyclic voltammetry in brain slices containing the nucleus accumbens to further elucidate the changes in dopamine release linked to nicotine withdrawal. Rats received vehicle or nicotine via the drinking water for 2–3 months. Studies assessing the expression of somatic signs in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and 24-h nicotine withdrawn rats showed that nicotine withdrawal led to a significant increase in somatic signs. Subsequent voltammetry studies showed that long-term nicotine decreased single-pulse-stimulated dopamine release via an interaction at α6β2* receptors. Nicotine withdrawal led to a partial recovery in α6β2* receptor-mediated release. In addition, long-term nicotine treatment alone increased dopamine release paired-pulse ratios and this was partially reversed with nicotine removal. We then evaluated the effect of bath-applied nicotine and varenicline on dopamine release. Nicotine and varenicline both decreased single-pulse-stimulated release in vehicle-treated, nicotine-treated, and nicotine withdrawn rats. However, bath-applied varenicline increased paired-pulse ratios to a greater extent than nicotine during long-term nicotine treatment and after its withdrawal. Altogether these data suggest that nicotine withdrawal is associated with a partial restoration of dopamine release measures to control levels and that varenicline's differential modulation of dopamine release may contribute to its mechanism of action.02/2015; 3(1). DOI:10.1002/prp2.105
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine, such as cotinine, also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 12/2014; 6(340). DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2014.00340 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The mesocorticolimbic system plays a central role in nicotine dependence and withdrawal.•It consists of multiple functionally distinct pathways that mediate distinct aspects of nicotine reinforcement and aversion.•The acute and chronic effects of nicotine are mainly mediated by nicotinic, dopaminergic, and glutamatergic transmission in mesocorticolimbic circuits.Progress in Neurobiology 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2014.10.002 · 10.30 Impact Factor