Neurogenic hypertension and elevated vertebrobasilar arterial resistance: is there a causative link?
ABSTRACT There is evidence of sympathetic overdrive in a significant proportion of patients with essential hypertension and an animal model of the condition, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The reasons for this remain elusive. However, there is also evidence of narrowing of the arteries supplying the brainstem in the SHR and hypertensive humans. In this review, we discuss the possible role of brainstem hypoperfusion in driving increased sympathetic activity and hypertension.
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ABSTRACT: Systemic arterial hypertension has been previously suggested to develop as a compensatory condition when central nervous perfusion/oxygenation is compromised. Principal sympathoexcitatory C1 neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata (whose activation increases sympathetic drive and the arterial blood pressure) are highly sensitive to hypoxia, but the mechanisms of this O2 sensitivity remain unknown. Here, we investigated potential mechanisms linking brainstem hypoxia and high systemic arterial blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Brainstem parenchymal PO2 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat was found to be ≈15 mm Hg lower than in the normotensive Wistar rat at the same level of arterial oxygenation and systemic arterial blood pressure. Hypoxia-induced activation of rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata neurons was suppressed in the presence of either an ATP receptor antagonist MRS2179 or a glycogenolysis inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol, suggesting that sensitivity of these neurons to low PO2 is mediated by actions of extracellular ATP and lactate. Brainstem hypoxia triggers release of lactate and ATP which produce excitation of C1 neurons in vitro and increases sympathetic nerve activity and arterial blood pressure in vivo. Facilitated breakdown of extracellular ATP in the rostral ventrolateral medulla oblongata by virally-driven overexpression of a potent ectonucleotidase transmembrane prostatic acid phosphatase results in a significant reduction in the arterial blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rats (but not in normotensive animals). These results suggest that in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, lower PO2 of brainstem parenchyma may be associated with higher levels of ambient ATP and l-lactate within the presympathetic circuits, leading to increased central sympathetic drive and concomitant sustained increases in systemic arterial blood pressure. © 2015 The Authors.Hypertension 02/2013; 65(4). DOI:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.114.04683 · 7.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The C1 neurons reside in the rostral and intermediate portions of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM, IVLM). They use glutamate as a fast transmitter and synthesize catecholamines plus various neuropeptides. These neurons regulate the hypothalamic pituitary axis via direct projections to the paraventricular nucleus and regulate the autonomic nervous system via projections to sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. The presympathetic C1 cells, located in the RVLM, are probably organized in a roughly viscerotopic manner and most of them regulate the circulation. C1 cells are variously activated by hypoglycemia, infection or inflammation, hypoxia, nociception and hypotension and contribute to most glucoprivic responses. C1 cells also stimulate breathing and activate brainstem noradrenergic neurons including the locus coeruleus. Based on the various effects attributed to the C1 cells, their axonal projections and what is currently known of their synaptic inputs, subsets of C1 cells appear to be differentially recruited by pain, hypoxia, infection/ inflammation, hemorrhage and hypoglycemia to produce a repertoire of stereotyped autonomic, metabolic and neuroendocrine responses that help the organism survive physical injury and its associated cohort of acute infection, hypoxia, hypotension and blood loss. C1 cells may also contribute to glucose and cardiovascular homeostasis in the absence of such physical stresses and C1 cell hyperactivity may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) associated with diseases such as hypertension.AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 05/2013; DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.00054.2013 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that the pathophysiology of hypertension involves autonomic nervous system dysfunction, as well as a multitude of immune responses. However, the close interplay of these systems in the development and establishment of high blood pressure and its associated pathophysiology remains elusive and is the subject of extensive investigation. It has been proposed that an imbalance of the neuro-immune systems is a result of an enhancement of the "proinflammatory sympathetic" arm in conjunction with dampening of the "anti-inflammatory parasympathetic" arm of the autonomic nervous system. In addition to the neuronal modulation of the immune system, it is proposed that key inflammatory responses are relayed back to the central nervous system and alter the neuronal communication to the periphery. The overall objective of this review is to critically discuss recent advances in the understanding of autonomic immune modulation, and propose a unifying hypothesis underlying the mechanisms leading to the development and maintenance of hypertension, with particular emphasis on the bone marrow, as it is a crucial meeting point for neural, immune, and vascular networks.Current Hypertension Reports 05/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11906-013-0361-4 · 3.90 Impact Factor