A glutamate switch controls voltage-sensitive phosphatase function.
ABSTRACT The Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP) couples a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) to a lipid phosphatase that is similar to the tumor suppressor PTEN. How the VSD controls enzyme function has been unclear. Here, we present high-resolution crystal structures of the Ci-VSP enzymatic domain that reveal conformational changes in a crucial loop, termed the 'gating loop', that controls access to the active site by a mechanism in which residue Glu411 directly competes with substrate. Structure-based mutations that restrict gating loop conformation impair catalytic function and demonstrate that Glu411 also contributes to substrate selectivity. Structure-guided mutations further define an interaction between the gating loop and linker that connects the phosphatase to the VSD for voltage control of enzyme activity. Together, the data suggest that functional coupling between the gating loop and the linker forms the heart of the regulatory mechanism that controls voltage-dependent enzyme activation.
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ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) displays a preference for peptides containing acidic as well as aromatic/aliphatic residues immediately NH(2)-terminal to phosphotyrosine. The structure of PTP1B bound with DADEpYL-NH(2) (EGFR(988)(-)(993)) offers a structural explanation for PTP1B's preference for acidic residues [Jia, Z., Barford, D., Flint, A. J., and Tonks, N. K. (1995) Science 268, 1754-1758]. We report here the crystal structures of PTP1B in complex with Ac-ELEFpYMDYE-NH(2) (PTP1B.Con) and Ac-DAD(Bpa)pYLIPQQG (PTP1B.Bpa) determined to 1.8 and 1.9 A resolution, respectively. A structural analysis of PTP1B.Con and PTP1B.Bpa shows how aromatic/aliphatic residues at the -1 and -3 positions of peptide substrates are accommodated by PTP1B. A comparison of the structures of PTP1B.Con and PTP1B.Bpa with that of PTP1B.EGFR(988)(-)(993) reveals the structural basis for the plasticity of PTP1B substrate recognition. PTP1B is able to bind phosphopeptides by utilizing common interactions involving the aromatic ring and phosphate moiety of phosphotyrosine itself, two conserved hydrogen bonds between the Asp48 carboxylate side chain and the main chain nitrogens of the pTyr and residue 1, and a third between the main chain nitrogen of Arg47 and the main chain carbonyl of residue -2. The ability of PTP1B to accommodate both acidic and hydrophobic residues immediately NH(2)-terminal to pTyr appears to be conferred upon PTP1B by a single residue, Arg47. Depending on the nature of the NH(2)-terminal amino acids, the side chain of Arg47 can adopt one of two different conformations, generating two sets of distinct peptide binding surfaces. When an acidic residue is positioned at position -1, a preference for a second acidic residue is also observed at position -2. However, when a large hydrophobic group occupies position -1, Arg47 adopts a new conformation so that it can participate in hydrophobic interactions with both positions -1 and -3.Biochemistry 08/2000; 39(28):8171-9. · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphoinositides are membrane-delimited regulators of protein function and control many different cellular targets. The differentially phosphorylated isoforms have distinct concentrations in various subcellular membranes, which can change dynamically in response to cellular signaling events. Maintenance and dynamics of phosphoinositide levels involve a complex set of enzymes, among them phospholipases and lipid kinases and phosphatases. Recently, a novel type of phosphoinositide-converting protein (termed Ci-VSP) that contains a voltage sensor domain was isolated. It was already shown that Ci-VSP can alter phosphoinositide levels in a voltage-dependent manner. However, the exact enzymatic reaction catalyzed by Ci-VSP is not known. We used fluorescent phosphoinositide-binding probes and total internal reflection microscopy together with patch-clamp measurements from living cells to delineate substrates and products of Ci-VSP. Upon activation of Ci-VSP by membrane depolarization, membrane association of phosphatidylinositol (PI) (4,5)P2- and PI(3,4,5)P3-specific binding domains decreased, revealing consumption of these phosphoinositides by Ci-VSP. Depletion of PI(4,5)P2 was coincident with an increase in membrane PI(4)P. Similarly, PI(3,4)P2 was generated during depletion of PI(3,4,5)P3. These results suggest that Ci-VSP acts as a 5'-phosphatase of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(3,4,5)P3.Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(4):2106-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Changes in membrane potential affect ion channels and transporters, which then alter intracellular chemical conditions. Other signalling pathways coupled to membrane potential have been suggested but their underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we describe a novel protein from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis that has a transmembrane voltage-sensing domain homologous to the S1-S4 segments of voltage-gated channels and a cytoplasmic domain similar to phosphatase and tensin homologue. This protein, named C. intestinalis voltage-sensor-containing phosphatase (Ci-VSP), displays channel-like 'gating' currents and directly translates changes in membrane potential into the turnover of phosphoinositides. The activity of the phosphoinositide phosphatase in Ci-VSP is tuned within a physiological range of membrane potential. Immunocytochemical studies show that Ci-VSP is expressed in Ciona sperm tail membranes, indicating a possible role in sperm function or morphology. Our data demonstrate that voltage sensing can function beyond channel proteins and thus more ubiquitously than previously realized.Nature 07/2005; 435(7046):1239-43. · 38.60 Impact Factor