Mitochondria to the rescue.
ABSTRACT A new study using a mouse model of lung diseases is the first demonstration in vivo that bone marrow–derived stromal cells can repair tissue injury through the transfer of mitochondria (pages 759-765). This suggests that rescue of injured cells through mitochondrial transfer may be an important process in many diseases.
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ABSTRACT: The recent revival of old theories and setting them on modern scientific rails to a large extent are also relevant to mitochondrial science. Given the widespread belief that mitochondria are symbionts of ancient bacterial origin, the processes inherent to mitochondrial physiology can be revised based on their comparative analysis with possible involvement of bacteria. Such comparison combined with discussion of the role of microbiota in pathogenesis allows discussion of the role of "mitobiota" (we introduce this term) as the combination of different phenotypic manifestations of mitochondria in the organism reflecting pathological changes in the mitochondrial genome. When putting an equal sign between mitochondria and bacteria, we find similarity between the mitochondrial and bacterial theories of cancer. The presence of the term "bacterial infection" suggests "mitochondrial infection", and mitochondrial (oxidative) theory of aging can in some way be transformed into a "bacterial theory of aging". The possible existence of such processes and the data confirming their presence are discussed in this review. If such a comparison has the right to exist, the homeostasis of "mitobiota" is of not lesser physiological importance than homeostasis of microbiota, which has been so intensively discussed recently.
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ABSTRACT: Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow, adipose tissue, cord blood, and other origins have recently received much attention as potential therapeutic agents with beneficial immunomodulatory and regenerative properties. In their native tissue environment, however, such cells also appear to have essential functions in building and supporting tumor microenvironments, providing metastatic niches, and maintaining cancer hallmarks. Here, we consider the varied roles of these tissue-resident stroma-associated cells, synthesize recent and emerging discoveries, and discuss the role, potential, and clinical applications of MSCs in cancer and regenerative medicine.-Ilmer, M., Vykoukal, J., Recio Boiles, A., Coleman, M., Alt, E. Two sides of the same coin: stem cells in cancer and regenerative medicine.The FASEB Journal 03/2014; 28(7). DOI:10.1096/fj.13-244640 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adult stem cell populations, notably those which reside in the bone marrow, have been shown to contribute to several neuronal cell types in the rodent and human brain. The observation that circulating bone marrow cells can migrate into the central nervous system and fuse with, in particular, cerebellar Purkinje cells has suggested, at least in part, a potential mechanism behind this process. Experimentally, the incidence of cell fusion in the brain is enhanced with age, radiation exposure, inflammation, chemotherapeutic drugs and even selective damage to the neurons themselves. The presence of cell fusion, shown by detection of increased bi-nucleated neurons, has also been described in a variety of human central nervous system diseases, including both multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulating evidence is therefore raising new questions into the biological significance of cell fusion, with the possibility that it represents an important means of cell-mediated neuroprotection or rescue of highly complex neurons that cannot be replaced in adult life. Here, we discuss the evidence behind this phenomenon in the rodent and human brain, with a focus on the subsequent research investigating the physiological mechanisms of cell fusion underlying this process. We also highlight how these studies offer new insights into endogenous neuronal repair, opening new exciting avenues for potential therapeutic interventions against neurodegeneration and brain injury.Acta Neuropathologica 06/2014; 128(5). DOI:10.1007/s00401-014-1303-1 · 9.78 Impact Factor