Protecting myocardium from ischaemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury is important to reduce the complication of myocardial infarction (MI) and interventional revascularization procedures. In the present study, the cardioprotective potential of hydroalcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata was evaluated against left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) ligation-induced I-R injury of myocardium in rats.
MI was induced in rats by LADCA ligation for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. The rats were divided into five experimental groups viz., sham (saline treated, but LADCA was not ligated), I-R control (saline treated + I-R), benazepril (30 mg/kg + I-R), A. paniculata (200 mg/kg per se) and A. paniculata (200 mg/kg + I-R). A. paniculata was administered orally for 31 days. On day 31, rats were subjected to the I-R and cardiac function parameters were recorded. Further, rats were sacrificed and heart was excised for biochemical and histopathological studies.
In I-R control group, LADCA ligation resulted in significant cardiac dysfunction evidenced by reduced haemodynamic parameters; mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). The left ventricular contractile function was also altered. In I-R control group, I-R caused decline in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as leakage of myocytes injury marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and enhanced lipid peroxidation product, malonaldialdehyde (MDA). However, rats pretreated with A. paniculata 200 mg/kg showed favourable modulation of haemodynamic and left ventricular contractile function parameters, restoration of the myocardial antioxidants and prevention of depletion of myocytes injury marker enzymes along with inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observations confirmed the protective effects of A. paniculata. The cardioprotective effects of A. paniculata were found comparable to that of benazepril treatment. Interpretation &
Our results showed the cardioprotective effects of A. paniculata against I-R injury likely result from the suppression of oxidative stress and preserved histoarchitecture of myofibrils along with improved haemodynamic and ventricular functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Andrographis paniculata Nees is a valuable medicinal plant which yields the therapeutic compound andrographolide. The objective of the present study was to develop reliable in vitro propagation techniques in this plant species. The efficiency of shoot regeneration in A. paniculata was tested on the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), thidiazuron (TDZ), kinetin (Kn) and 2-isopentenyl adenine (2-iP) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μM and BAP (1.0 μM) in combination with other cytokinins like TDZ, Kn and 2-iP (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 5.0 and 10.0 μM) by using nodal explants. Maximum number of 39 shoots per explant was recorded on MS medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 μM) and Kn (5.0 μM). An anatomical study confirmed shoot regeneration via direct organogenesis. Regenerated shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0 μM for the induction of roots. Cent percent shoots developed roots after transfer to half strength MS medium supplemented with IBA (2.0 μM). The rooted plantlets were successfully acclimatized and established in soil. Randomly amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) (RAPD) analysis was carried out to check for possible genetic alterations in regenerated plants and the results revealed that the recovered plants did not exhibit any type of polymorphism. The andrographolide content was determined in regenerated plants using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and regenerated plants had considerable amount of andrographolide, so regenerated plants could be used as raw material for andrographolide extraction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Andrographis panicultata (Kaalmegha) has long been used for hepatotoxicity according to ancient herbal practices. One of the major active products of the herbal plant is Silymarin. Silymarin consists of four flavonolignan isomers namely- silybin/silibinin, isosilybin, silydianin and silychristin. Here, the computational approach shows that silybin/silibinin binds to IGFBP3 and ALOX5, two major proteins that are upregulated as a body defense mechanism during liver damage. IGFBP3 is an IGF1 binding protein. IGF1 is involved in curing hepatotoxicity. On the contrary ALOX5 is an enzyme. Both the protein molecules can be potential targets of silibinin. Silibinin 3D structure was docked to the target proteins as a ligand. The scores for such docking, although was satisfactory, showed that other structurally related synthetic compounds may have better binding potential than silibinin. However, this conclusion should be subjected to further in vitro experiment as in biological system often that binds irreversibly is not the best effector. In final analysis, satisfactory binding scores explain a novel mechanism how silibinin may act to cure hepatic toxicity. This research although was focused to find the target of the afore-mentioned ligand, in the future may pave the way for a synthetic drug. It should also boost our confidence on herbal practices and thereby link a bridge between traditional and modern treatment techniques.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study was performed to investigate Evolvulus alsinoides. Linn a natural herb, would attenuate the acute myocardial infarction in isoproterenol [ISP]-treated rat model maintaining cardiac function and activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. Heart tissue enzyme analysis in albino male rats, such as LPO, GSH, GPX, GST, SOD, CAT, CK-MB, MDA and biochemical analysis in serum plasma viz., ALT, AST, LDH, and CPK were performed. Methanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides [EA] at the dose of [100 & 200 mg/kg/p.o] showed significant cytoprotection in the heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemic injury. The results indicate that Evolvulus alsinoides [EA] administration causes myocardial adaptation by augmenting endogenous antioxidants and protects rat hearts from oxidative stress associated with ISP induced myocardial injury, and justify its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases in albino rats.
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