Retrospective study of chikungunya outbreak in urban areas of India.
ABSTRACT A retrospective study on chikungunya outbreak in India in five States viz. Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Kerala was conducted in 2007-2008 to know the distribution and determinants of chikungunya fever outbreak in India.
On the basis of high and low incidence of chikungunya fever, two districts from each State and two wards from the selected district were taken for random selection of 1000 households from 10 districts and 5 States. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to individuals, patients, qualified health professionals and to stakeholders for collecting information.
The educational background and occupation of the respondents showed variations across the study States. Only in high incidence ward of Maharashtra, water storage period for 3-6 days and emptying, drying of water containers on weekly basis was noted. The study through knowledge, attitude, belief, practice (KABP) obtained individual's perception of chikungunya fever, its prevention and control. Patients' expenditure on treatment was mainly recorded less than Rs 500 across study States. Health facility survey obtained an overview of the capacity of local health facilities. Stakeholders' perception regarding chikungunya fever was also noted.
The study revealed differences in awareness of chikungunya, cause of the disease, vector responsible, mode of transmission, biting time and elimination of breeding of mosquitoes statistically significant among high and low incidence wards of all the States. Expenditure on treatment was independent of economically active status and loss of man-days across all the States. Education and occupation did not have any relation with emptying/drying of water containers in high incidence wards. Strengthening of surveillance, information, education and communication (IEC) activities along with case management facilities may be provided by the State health department for prevention of chikungunya outbreaks in future. Stakeholders should be more involved in outbreak management and future planning.
SourceAvailable from: Balbir Bagicha Singh[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: India is confronted with many hygiene problems in urban areas that are related to animal populations. While some of these issues have been present for many years, others are only now emerging. A livestock census in 2003 and another in 2007 revealed that populations of crossbred cattle, goats and poultry are all increasing in urban areas, since this enables easy market access, which, in turn, reduces transportation costs and adds to profits. The canine population has increased along with the human population, largely due to a lack of control measures such as impounding stray animals and euthanasia. These increases in populations of both food-producing animals and stray animals in cities exacerbate such public health hazards as the transmission of zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, occcupational health hazards and environmental pollution, as well as compromising animal welfare. At present, public health hazards due to urban animal husbandry practices are considerably under-estimated. To improve veterinary-related urban hygiene and to facilitate livestock production operations in urban areas, there is an urgent need to develop sound, science-based strategies enforced through stringent regulations. The use of One Health teams may provide an answer to these highly integrated public health problems.Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics) 12/2013; 32(3):645-56. · 0.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives: Chikungunya fever occurred in an epidemic form in the state of Maharashtra after a gap of about 32 years. Many cases with symptoms which were suggestive of Chikungunya fever were reported from the village Kasegaon, Dist Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hence, this study was done to assess the magnitude of the outbreak and to identify the possible socio-environmental factors which are responsible for Chikungunya fever. Material and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out at Kasegaon by a team from the Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences, Karad, Maharashtra, in collaboration with the Primary Health Centre, Kasegaon, Distt. Sangli. Results and Conclusion: The Chikungunya prevalence was 9.6%. There were 154 clinically suspected Chikungunya fever cases. Of these, 54.5% were males and 45.5% were females. About 72.7% of the cases were in the age range of 11-50 years, which is the active age group. The main symptoms were an acute onset of fever with joint pain (100%). Multiple joints were involved in (89.6%) cases. The mean duration of the fever was 3 days (range 1-10 days). About 40.3% people preferred to consult a government health facility. In the affected area, 83.1% people were aware of Chikungunya fever. Only few (1.1%) knew the vectors which were responsible for the Chikungunya transmission. Among the people in the affected area, 33.1% had knowledge on insecticide spraying, 23.2% had knowledge on the use of mosquito nets and repellents, 12.5% had knowledge on source reduction and 0.8% had knowledge on larvicides.06/2013; 7(6):1059-62. DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2013/5330.3061