Cardiometabolic changes after continuous positive airway pressure for obstructive sleep apnoea: a randomised sham-controlled study
ABSTRACT RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Impaired insulin sensitivity (ISx), increased visceral abdominal fat (VAF) and liver fat are all central components of the metabolic syndrome and characteristics of men with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The reversibility of these observed changes with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment in men with OSA has not been systematically studied in a randomised sham-controlled fashion. METHODS: 65 men without diabetes who were CPAP naïve and had moderate to severe OSA (age=49±12 years, apnoea hypopnoea index (AHI)=39.9±17.7 events/h, body mass index=31.3±5.2 kg/m(2)) were randomised to receive either real (n=34) or sham (n=31) CPAP for 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, all subjects received real CPAP for an additional 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Main outcomes were the change at week 12 from baseline in VAF, ISx and liver fat. Other metabolic outcomes were changes in the disposition index, total fat, and blood leptin and adiponectin concentrations. The AHI was lower on CPAP compared with sham by 33 events/h (95% CI-43.9 to -22.2, p<0.0001) after 12 weeks. There were no between-group differences at 12 weeks in VAF (-13.0 cm(3), -42.4 to 16.2, p=0.37), ISx (-0.13 (min(-1))(μU/ml))(-1), -0.40 to 0.14, p=0.33), liver fat (-0.5 cm(3), -3.8 to 2.7, p=0.74) or any other cardiometabolic parameter. At 24 weeks, ISx (3.2×10(4) (min(-1))(μU/ml))(-1), 0.9×10(4) to 6.0×10(4), p=0.009), but not VAF (-1.4 cm(3), -19.2 to 16.4, p=0.87) or liver fat (-0.2 Hounsfield units, -2.4 to 2.0, p=0.83) were improved compared with baseline in the whole study group. CONCLUSION: Reducing visceral adiposity in men with OSA cannot be achieved with CPAP alone and is likely to require weight-loss interventions. Longer-term effects of CPAP on other cardiometabolic markers such as ISx require further investigation to fully examine time dependencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12608000301369.
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ABSTRACT: An increasing body of evidence suggests that obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, glucose intolerance, and deteriorations in glycaemic control. Despite the knowledge of a multifactorial pathogenesis of long-term diabetes complications, there is a paucity of information on impact of comorbidities associated with chronic intermittent hypoxemia on development and progression of chronic diabetes complications. This review explores the clinical and scientific overlap of OSA and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its possible impact on the development and progression of diabetes macrovascular and microvascular complications. Multiple prospective observational cohort studies have demonstrated that OSA significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease independent of potential confounding risk factors. The current evidence further suggests that OSA with concurrent T2DM is associated with an increased risk of oxidative stress-induced damage of vulnerable endothelial and mesangial cells and peripheral nerves. Further studies are needed to validate the impact of OSA treatment on diabetes micro- and macrovascular complications. Since it is presently still unknown whether OSA treatment may provide a diabetes-modifying intervention that could delay or halt the progression of chronic diabetes complications, the emphasis is on early diagnosis and satisfactory treatment of both OSA and T2DM.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 05/2014; 104(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diabres.2014.01.007 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes is a chronic illness that is increasing in epidemic proportions worldwide. Major factors contributing to the development of type 2 diabetes include obesity and poor lifestyle habits (e.g., excess dietary intake and limited physical activity). Despite the proven efficacy of lifestyle interventions and the use of multiple pharmacological agents, the economic and public health burden of type 2 diabetes remains substantial. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable sleep disorder that is pervasive among overweight and obese adults, who represent about two thirds of the U.S. population today. An ever-growing number of studies have shown that OSA is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, independent of obesity. Evidence from animal and human models that mimic OSA provides potential mechanisms for how OSA may alter glucose metabolism. Up to 83% of patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from unrecognized OSA and increasing severity of OSA is associated with worsening glucose control. However, it is still unclear whether OSA may lead to the development of diabetes over time. More data from large-scale longitudinal studies with rigorous assessments of diabetes and OSA are needed. In addition, there is still controversy whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment of OSA improves glucose metabolism. Large-scale randomized-controlled trials of CPAP treatment of OSA with well-validated assessments of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance are needed. These studies may reveal that OSA represents a novel, modifiable risk factor for the development of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.Frontiers in Neurology 08/2012; 3:126. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2012.00126
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is recurrent obstruction of the upper airway during sleep leading to intermittent hypoxia (IH). OSA has been associated with all components of the metabolic syndrome as well as with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is a common condition ranging in severity from uncomplicated hepatic steatosis to steatohep-atitis (NASH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The gold standard for the diagnosis and staging of NAFLD is liver biopsy. Obesity and insulin resistance lead to liver steatosis, but the causes of the progression to NASH are not known. Emerging evidence suggests that OSA may play a role in the progression of hepatic steatosis and the development of NASH. Several cross-sectional studies showed that the severity of IH in patients with OSA predicted the severity of NAFLD on liver biopsy. However, neither prospective nor interventional studies with continuous positive airway pressure treatment have been performed. Studies in a mouse model showed that IH causes triglyceride accumulation in the liver and liver injury as well as hepatic inflammation. The mouse model provided insight in the pathogenesis of liver injury showing that (1) IH accelerates the progression of hepatic steatosis by inducing adipose tissue lipolysis and increasing free fatty acids (FFA) flux into the liver; (2) IH up-regulates lipid biosynthetic pathways in the liver; (3) IH induces oxidative stress in the liver; (4) IH up-regulates hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha and possibly HIF-2 alpha, which may increase hepatic steatosis and induce liver inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of FFA and different transcription factors in the pathogenesis of IH-induced NAFLD is yet to be established. Thus, multiple lines of evidence suggest that IH of OSA may contribute to the progression of NAFLD but definitive clinical studies and experiments in the mouse model have yet to be done.Frontiers in Neurology 10/2012; 3. DOI:10.3389/fneur.2012.00149