The benefit of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in high body mass index patients.
ABSTRACT The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effect of body mass index on the surgical outcomes of open partial nephrectomy and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, and to analyze whether higher body mass index patients may derive greater benefit from laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
We reviewed 110 patients who underwent open partial nephrectomy and 47 patients who underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy at our institution. We analyzed the data to determine what kind of factor would be associated with prolonged operative time, increased estimated blood loss and prolonged ischemic time, and compared the result of open partial nephrectomy with that of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.
A statistically significant correlation was observed between body mass index and operative time or estimated blood loss in open partial nephrectomy. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated that body mass index was an independent predictor for prolonged operative time and higher estimated blood loss in open partial nephrectomy, but not in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. In the normal body mass index group (body mass index<25.0 kg/m2), although mean operative time in the laparoscopic partial nephrectomy group was significantly longer than that in the open partial nephrectomy group, the difference was relatively small. In the high body mass index group (body mass index≥25.0 kg/m2), the mean operative time of the two groups was not statistically different. The estimated blood loss of open partial nephrectomy was significantly higher than that of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in both groups. In both operative procedures, tumor size was an independent predictor for prolonged ischemic time in multivariate analysis.
Body mass index was an independent predictor for prolonged operative time and higher estimated blood loss in open partial nephrectomy but not in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy was less influenced by body mass index and had a greater benefit, especially in high body mass index patients.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity and diabetes are increasing in the United States. To estimate the prevalence of obesity and diabetes among US adults in 2001. Random-digit telephone survey of 195 005 adults aged 18 years or older residing in all states participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2001. Body mass index, based on self-reported weight and height and self-reported diabetes. In 2001 the prevalence of obesity (BMI > or =30) was 20.9% vs 19.8% in 2000, an increase of 5.6%. The prevalence of diabetes increased to 7.9% vs 7.3% in 2000, an increase of 8.2%. The prevalence of BMI of 40 or higher in 2001 was 2.3%. Overweight and obesity were significantly associated with diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, asthma, arthritis, and poor health status. Compared with adults with normal weight, adults with a BMI of 40 or higher had an odds ratio (OR) of 7.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.39-8.50) for diagnosed diabetes, 6.38 (95% CI, 5.67-7.17) for high blood pressure, 1.88 (95% CI,1.67-2.13) for high cholesterol levels, 2.72 (95% CI, 2.38-3.12) for asthma, 4.41 (95% CI, 3.91-4.97) for arthritis, and 4.19 (95% CI, 3.68-4.76) for fair or poor health. Increases in obesity and diabetes among US adults continue in both sexes, all ages, all races, all educational levels, and all smoking levels. Obesity is strongly associated with several major health risk factors.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2003; 289(1):76-9. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is a graded and independent risk factor for substantial comorbidity and death. We aimed to examine new onset of chronic kidney disease in patients with small, renal cortical tumours undergoing radical or partial nephrectomy. We did a retrospective cohort study of 662 patients with a normal concentration of serum creatinine and two healthy kidneys undergoing elective partial or radical nephrectomy for a solitary, renal cortical tumour (</=4 cm) between 1989 and 2005 at a referral cancer centre. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated with the abbreviated Modification in Diet and Renal Disease Study equation. Separate analysis was undertaken, with chronic kidney disease defined as GFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) and GFR lower than 45 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). 171 (26%) patients had pre-existing chronic kidney disease before surgery. After surgery, the 3-year probability of freedom from new onset of GFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) was 80% (95% CI 73-85) after partial nephrectomy and 35% (28-43; p<0.0001) after radical nephrectomy; corresponding values for GFRs lower than 45 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) were 95% (91-98) and 64% (56-70; p<0.0001), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that radical nephrectomy remained an independent risk factor for patients developing new onset of GFR lower than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio 3.82 [95% CI 2.75-5.32]) and 45 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (11.8 [6.24-22.4]; both p<0.0001). Because the baseline kidney function of patients with renal cortical tumours is lower than previously thought, accurate assessment of kidney function is essential before surgery. Radical nephrectomy is a significant risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease and might no longer be regarded as the gold standard treatment for small, renal cortical tumours.The Lancet Oncology 09/2006; 7(9):735-40. · 25.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prevalence of obesity and overweight increased in the United States between 1978 and 1991. More recent reports have suggested continued increases but are based on self-reported data. To examine trends and prevalences of overweight (body mass index [BMI] > or = 25) and obesity (BMI > or = 30), using measured height and weight data. Survey of 4115 adult men and women conducted in 1999 and 2000 as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a nationally representative sample of the US population. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity compared with prior surveys, and sex-, age-, and race/ethnicity-specific estimates. The age-adjusted prevalence of obesity was 30.5% in 1999-2000 compared with 22.9% in NHANES III (1988-1994; P<.001). The prevalence of overweight also increased during this period from 55.9% to 64.5% (P<.001). Extreme obesity (BMI > or = 40) also increased significantly in the population, from 2.9% to 4.7% (P =.002). Although not all changes were statistically significant, increases occurred for both men and women in all age groups and for non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, and Mexican Americans. Racial/ethnic groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of obesity or overweight for men. Among women, obesity and overweight prevalences were highest among non-Hispanic black women. More than half of non-Hispanic black women aged 40 years or older were obese and more than 80% were overweight. The increases in the prevalences of obesity and overweight previously observed continued in 1999-2000. The potential health benefits from reduction in overweight and obesity are of considerable public health importance.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/2002; 288(14):1723-7. · 29.98 Impact Factor