Article

Effects of sauna alone versus postexercise sauna baths on short-term heart rate variability in patients with untreated hypertension.

Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation Centre (Centre ÉPIC), Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Journal of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation and prevention (Impact Factor: 1.59). 05/2012; 32(3):147-54. DOI: 10.1097/HCR.0b013e318251ffeb
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT We measured the effects of sauna bathing alone or a 30-minute exercise session followed by sauna bathing on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects with untreated hypertension.
Ten patients with untreated hypertension (age 59 ± 10 years) were randomly assigned to (1) a control resting session, (2) two 8-minute sauna-only sessions (S), or (3) a 30-minute aerobic exercise session at 75% of maximal heart rate followed by a sauna session (ES). Spectral analysis of HRV was measured with a Polar S810 heart rate monitor at baseline, during the sauna session, and 15 and 120 minutes after the sauna session (T15 and T120). A Fast Fourier Transformation was used to quantify the power spectral density of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) bands.
For S and ES conditions, LF (NU, normalized unit) and LF/HF were significantly higher (P < .05 and P < .01) in the first and second sauna sessions, and HF (NU) was significantly lower (P < .05, first sauna). At baseline and T15 for S and ES versus control, LF (NU) and LF/HF were significantly higher (P < .05), and HF (NU) was significantly lower (P < .05), without any effect of the 30-minute exercise session.
A single sauna session induced a significant alteration of autonomic cardiovascular control in patients with untreated hypertension, with an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic drive. These alterations were normalized within 15 to 120 minutes after sauna bathing. Additional studies are required to document long-term effects of chronic sauna bathing on autonomic control in patients with hypertension.

1 Bookmark
 · 
92 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The National High Blood Pressure Education Program (NHBPEP) was launched 20 years ago based on data from population studies and clinical trials that showed high blood pressure (HBP) was a major unsolved--but soluble--mass public health problem. The present review summarizes recent data from US prospective population studies on blood pressure--systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP)--and cardiovascular risk. The outcome variables include blood pressure-related risks, primarily incidence and mortality from coronary heart disease, stroke, other and all cardiovascular diseases (CVD); also cardiac abnormalities (roentgenographic, electrocardiographic, echocardiographic); also, all-cause mortality and life expectancy. Data accrued during the past 20 years confirm that SBP and DBP have continuous, graded, strong, independent, etiologically significant relationships to the outcome variables. These relationships are documented for young, middle-aged, and older men and for middle-aged and older women of varying socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicity. Among persons aged 35 years or more, most have SBP/DBP above optimal (< 120/< 80 mm Hg); hence, they are at increased CVD risk, ie, the blood pressure problem involves most of the population, not only the substantial minority with clinical HBP. For middle-aged and older persons, SBP relates even more strongly to risk than DBP; at every DBP level, higher SBP results in greater CVD risk and curtailment of life expectancy. A great potential exists for improved health and increased longevity through control of the blood pressure problem. Its realization requires a strategy combining population wide and high-risk approaches, the former to prevent rise of blood pressure with age and to achieve primary prevention of HBP by nutritional-hygienic means; the latter to enhance detection, treatment, and control of HBP. The newly expanded goals of the NHBPEP, aimed at implementing this broader strategy for the solution of the blood pressure problem, merit active support from physicians and all health professionals.
    Archives of Internal Medicine 03/1993; 153(5):598-615. · 11.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Information is limited regarding the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular disease in persons with high-normal blood pressure (systolic pressure of 130 to 139 mm Hg, diastolic pressure of 85 to 89 mm Hg, or both). We investigated the association between blood-pressure category at base line and the incidence of cardiovascular disease on follow-up among 6859 participants in the Framingham Heart Study who were initially free of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. A stepwise increase in cardiovascular event rates was noted in persons with higher baseline blood-pressure categories. The 10-year cumulative incidence of cardiovascular disease in subjects 35 to 64 years of age who had high-normal blood pressure was 4 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 2 to 5 percent) for women and 8 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 6 to 10 percent) for men; in older subjects (those 65 to 90 years old), the incidence was 18 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 12 to 23 percent) for women and 25 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 17 to 34 percent) for men. As compared with optimal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure was associated with a risk-factor-adjusted hazard ratio for cardiovascular disease of 2.5 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.6 to 4.1) in women and 1.6 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.2) in men. High-normal blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Our findings emphasize the need to determine whether lowering high-normal blood pressure can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease.
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2001; 345(18):1291-7. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: - To examine the prevalence, incidence, predisposing factors for hypertension, its hazards as an ingredient of the cardiovascular risk profile, and the implications of this information for prevention and treatment. - Prospective longitudinal analysis of 36-year follow-up data from the Framingham Study of the relation of antecedent blood pressure to occurrence of subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and mortality depending on the metabolically linked burden of associated risk factors. - Hypertension is one of the most prevalent and powerful contributors to cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of death in the United States. There is, on average, a 20 mm Hg systolic and 10 mm Hg diastolic increment increase in blood pressure from age 30 to 65 years. Isolated systolic hypertension is the dominant variety. There is no evidence of a decline in the prevalence of hypertension over 4 decades despite improvements in its detection and treatment. Hypertension contributes to all of the major atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease outcomes increasing risk, on average, 2- to 3-fold. Coronary disease, the most lethal and common sequela, deserves highest priority. Hypertension clusters with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity, occurring in isolation in less than 20%. The hazard depends on the number of these associated metabolically linked risk factors present. Coexistent overt cardiovascular disease also influences the hazard and choice of therapy. - The absence of a decline in the prevalence of hypertension indicates an urgent need for primary prevention by weight control, exercise, and reduced salt and alcohol intake. The urgency and choice of therapy of existing hypertension should be based on the multivariate cardiovascular risk profile that more appropriately targets hypertensive persons for treatment and prevention of cardiovascular sequelae.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 275(20):1571-6. · 29.98 Impact Factor

Full-text

View
39 Downloads
Available from
Jun 4, 2014