Cerebellar Amyloid-beta Plaques: Disturbed Cortical Circuitry in A beta PP/PS1 Transgenic Mice as a Model of Familial Alzheimer's Disease
ABSTRACT Cerebellar amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition in the form of neuritic plaques and Purkinje cell loss are common in certain pedigrees of familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) mainly linked to PS1 mutations. AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice, here used as a model of FAD, show a few Aβ plaques in the molecular layer of the cerebellum at 6 months, and which increase in number with age. Motor impairment is apparent in transgenic mice aged 12 months. Combined methods have shown degenerated parallel fibers as the main component of dystrophic neurites of Aβ plaques, loss of synaptic contacts between parallel fibers and dendritic spines of Purkinje cells, and degeneration of granule cells starting at 12 months and increasing in mice 18/20 months old. In addition, abnormal mitochondria and focal loss of Purkinje and basket cells, together with occasional axonal torpedoes and increased collaterals of Purkinje cells in mice aged 18/20 months, is suggested to be a concomitant defect presumably related to soluble extracellular or intracellular Aβ. These observations demonstrate serious deterioration of the neuronal circuitry in the cerebellum of AβPP/PS1 transgenic mice, and they provide support for the interpretation of similar alterations occurring in certain pedigrees with FAD.
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ABSTRACT: In view of the rapid preclinical development of cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury, and tumors, the safe and efficient delivery and targeting of therapeutic cells to the central nervous system is critical for maintaining therapeutic efficacy and safety in the respective disease models. Our previous data demonstrated therapeutically efficacious and targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the brain in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson?s disease (PD). The present study examined delivery of bone marrow derived MSCs, macrophages, and microglia to the brain in a transgenic model of PD ((Thy1)-h[A30P] αS) and an APP/PS1 model of Alzheimer?s disease (AD) via intranasal application (INA). INA of microglia in na?ve BL/6 mice led to targeted and effective delivery of cells to the brain. Quantitative PCR analysis of eGFP DNA showed that the brain contained the highest amount of eGFP-microglia (up to 2.1x10(4)) after INA of 1x10(6) cells, while the total amount of cells detected in peripheral organs did not exceed 3.4x10(3). Seven days after INA, MSCs expressing eGFP were detected in the olfactory bulb (OB), cortex, amygdala, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem of (Thy1)-h[A30P] αS transgenic mice, showing predominant distribution within the OB and brainstem. INA of eGFP-expressing macrophages in 13 month-old APP/PS1 mice led to delivery of cells to the OB, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Both, MSCs and macrophages contained Iba-1-positive population of small microglia-like cells and Iba-1-negative large rounded cells showing either intracellular Amyloid beta (macrophages in APP/PS1 model) or α-Synuclein (MSCs in (Thy1)-h[A30P] αS model) immunoreactivity. Here we show, for the first time, intranasal delivery of cells to the brain of transgenic PD and AD mouse models. Additional work is needed to determine the optimal dosage (single treatment regimen or repeated administrations) to achieve functional improvement in these mouse models with intranasal microglia/macrophages and MSCs. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.Cell Transplantation 10/2014; 23. DOI:10.3727/096368914X684970 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6) has neuroprotective effects against various neuronal injuries, but its effect on amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity remains unclear. We exposed rat hippocampal neurons to different concentrations of Aβ25-35 to induce neurotoxicity, and then treated cells with BMP6 to assess the neuroprotective effects. In vivo, we bilaterally injected Aβ1-40 into basal forebrain to simulate the neuropathological process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and explored changes in the expression of the BMP6 and LIMK1. Our data demonstrated that BMP6 prevented apoptosis induced by a high dose of Aβ25-35, and inhibited rod formation induced by low dose of Aβ25-35 in hippocampal neurons. Forebrain injection of Aβ1-40 led to a significant downregulation of BMP6, and inactivation of LIMK1 pathway in basal forebrain, whereas the opposite changes were observed in hippocampus. Our results suggest that BMP6 has neuroprotective effects against Aβ25-35. The BMP6 and LIMK1 pathways may have different expression patterns at different stages of AD, and be self-regulating via a negative feedback mechanism between different brain regions.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2014; 42(2). DOI:10.3233/JAD-140231 · 3.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recent data suggest that the combined effect of oxidative stress due to aging and slightly elevated amyloid-β (Aβ) levels initiate Alzheimer's disease (AD) long before the clinical onset. Investigations of this early phase are hampered by the lack of cellular or animal models reflecting this scenario. We used SH-SY5Y cells stably transfected with an additional copy of the human AβPP gene and artificial aging by complex I inhibition. These cells show slightly elevated Aβ levels, moderately decreased ATP levels, impaired mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased mitochondrial respiration. Assessing mitochondrial dynamics with three different methods reveals a distinct shift toward mitochondrial fission and fragmentation in SH-SY5Y AβPPwt cells. We also performed electron cryo-tomography of isolated mitochondria to reveal that there were no major differences between SH-SY5Y control and SH-SY5Y AβPPwt mitochondria with respect to swelling or loss of cristae. Dystrophic neurites are an early pathological feature of AD. Interestingly, SH-SY5Y AβPPwt cells exhibit significantly longer neurites, likely due to substantially elevated levels of sAβPPα. Complex I inhibition also shows substantial effects on mitochondrial dynamics, impairs neuritogenesis, and elevates Aβ levels in both cell types. In SH-SY5Y AβPPwt cells, these defects were more pronounced due to a relatively elevated Aβ and a reduced sAβPPα production. Our findings suggest that the progression from low Aβ levels to the beginning of AD takes place in the presence of oxidative stress during normal aging. This mechanism not only results from additive effects of both mechanisms on mitochondrial function but might also be additionally aggravated by altered amyloidogenic processing.Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 06/2014; 42(2). DOI:10.3233/JAD-140381 · 3.61 Impact Factor