Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition, TGF-beta, and Osteopontin in Wound Healing and Tissue Remodeling After Injury
ABSTRACT Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process essential to wound healing and tissue remodeling after a thermal burn or other injury. EMT is characterized by phenotypic changes in epithelial cells that render them apolar, with decreased cell-cell adhesions, increased motility, and changes in cytoskeletal architecture similar to mesenchymal stem cells. With regard to healing a thermal burn wound, many facets of wound healing necessitate cells to undergo these phenotypic changes; two will be described in the following review. The first is the differentiation of epithelial cells into myofibroblasts that rebuild the extracellular matrix and facilitate wound contraction. The second is reepithelialization by keratinocytes. The primary cytokine signal identified in the literature that triggers EMT is transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. In addition to its vital role in the induction of EMT, TGF-β has many other roles in the wound healing process. The following review will provide evidence that EMT is a central event in wound healing. It will also show the importance of a regulated amount of TGF-β for proper wound healing. Finally, osteopontin will be briefly discussed with its relation to wound healing and its connections to EMT and TGF-β.
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ABSTRACT: Bladder cancer stem cell research is rapidly expanding based on the knowledge of cancer stem cells from various cancer types and normal stem cells as models. In various cancer types, cancer stem cells have been implicated in therapeutic resistance and relapse after initial therapy. Understanding how cancer stem cells differ from bulk cancer cells and how cancer stem cells contribute to relapse and resistance are essential to develop novel therapeutics to target cancer stem cells effectively. Here we review the latest information on bladder cancer stem cells, their biological characteristics, including their response to treatment, recurrence, immune context and technical problems encountered in bladder cancer stem cell research.Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy 11/2013; DOI:10.2174/1574888X08666131113123051 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The current study investigates whether microRNA (miRNA) regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tissue fibrosis, and angiogenesis are differentially expressed in human primary pterygium. Genome-wide miRNA and mRNA expression profiling of paired pterygium and normal conjunctiva was performed in the context of conventional excision of pterygium with autotransplantation of conjunctiva (n=8). Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to validate the expression of key molecules previously detected by microarray. In pterygium, 25 miRNAs and 31 mRNAs were significantly differentially expressed by more than two-fold compared to normal conjunctiva. 14 miRNAs were up-regulated (miR-1246, -486, -451, -3172, -3175, -1308, -1972, -143, -211, -665, -1973, -18a, 143, and -663b), whereas 11 were down-regulated (miR-675, -200b-star, -200a-star, -29b, -200b, -210, -141, -31, -200a, -934, and -375). Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis demonstrated that members of the miR-200 family were coexpressed and down-regulated in pterygium. The molecular and cellular functions that were most significant to the miRNA data sets were cellular development, cellular growth and proliferation, and cellular movement. qRT-PCR confirmed the expression of 15 of the 16 genes tested and revealed that miR-429 was down-regulated by more than two-fold in pterygium. The concerted down-regulation of four members from both clusters of the miR-200 family (miR-200a/-200b/-429 and miR-200c/-141), which are known to regulate EMT, and up-regulation of the predicted target and mesenchymal marker fibronectin (FN1), suggest that EMT could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of pterygium and might constitute promising new targets for therapeutic intervention in pterygium.Experimental Eye Research 07/2013; 115. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2013.07.003 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a physiological process necessary to normal embryologic development. However in genesis of pathological situations, this transition can be perverted and signaling pathways have different regulations from those of normal physiology. In cancer invasion, such a mechanism leads to generation of circulating tumor cells. Epithelial cancer cells become motile mesenchymal cells able to shed from the primary tumor and enter in the blood circulation. This is the major part of the invasive way of cancer. EMT is also implicated in chronic diseases like fibrosis and particularly renal fibrosis. In adult organisms, healing is based on EMT which is beneficial to repair wounds even if it can sometimes exceed its goal and elicit fibrosis. In this review, we delineate the clinical significance of EMT in both physiological and pathological circumstances.12/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1186/s40169-015-0055-4