Autologous stem cells for personalised medicine.
ABSTRACT Increasing understanding of stem cell biology, the ability to reprogramme differentiated cells to a pluripotent state and evidence of multipotency in certain adult somatic stem cells has opened the door to exciting therapeutic advances as well as a great deal of regulatory and ethical issues. Benefits will come from the possibility of modelling human diseases and develop individualised therapies, and from their use in transplantation and bioengineering. The use of autologous stem cells is highly desirable, as it avoids the problem of tissue rejection, and also reduces ethical and regulatory issues. Identification of the most appropriate cell sources for different potential applications, development of appropriate clinical grade methodologies and large scale well controlled clinical trials will be essential to assess safety and value of cell based therapies, which have been generating much hope, but are by and large not yet close to becoming standard clinical practice. We briefly discuss stem cells in the context of tissue repair and regenerative medicine, with a focus on individualised clinical approaches, and give examples of sources of autologous cells with potential for clinical intervention.
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ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-like multipotent stem/progenitor cells have been widely investigated for regenerative medicine and deemed promising in clinical applications. In order to further improve MSC-based stem cell therapeutics, it is important to understand the cellular kinetics and functional roles of MSCs in the dynamic regenerative processes. However, due to the heterogeneous nature of typical MSC cultures, their native identity and anatomical localization in the body have remained unclear, making it difficult to decipher the existence of distinct cell subsets within the MSC entity. Recent studies have shown that several blood-vessel-derived precursor cell populations, purified by flow cytometry from multiple human organs, give rise to bona fide MSCs, suggesting that the vasculature serves as a systemic reservoir of MSC-like stem/progenitor cells. Using individually purified MSC-like precursor cell subsets, we and other researchers have been able to investigate the differential phenotypes and regenerative capacities of these contributing cellular constituents in the MSC pool. In this review, we will discuss the identification and characterization of perivascular MSC precursors, including pericytes and adventitial cells, and focus on their cellular kinetics: cell adhesion, migration, engraftment, homing, and intercellular cross-talk during tissue repair and regeneration.Stem cells international. 01/2013; 2013:983059.
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ABSTRACT: Scaffold cellularization for cartilage engineering can aid implant properties, their retention and minimize repeated intervention, particularly in paediatric reconstructive craniofacial surgery. We developed novel bionanoscaffolds using paediatric adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs), an accessible autologous cell source, and POSS-PCU. Little is known about cellular responses to this nanomaterial, though it was used in human. We assessed: 1) POSS-PCU cellularization and bioaffinity to hADSCs; 2) hADSC chondrogenic differentiation ability in POSS-PCU; 3) whether bionanoscaffolds became encased within a vascular network and/or vascularised. POSS-PCU supported ADSC survival and proliferation and their migration and differentiation into cartilage within the nanoscaffold. Furthermore, after CAM-grafting, bionanoscaffolds were rapidly surrounded by blood vessels without any apparent negative reaction and erythrocytes of host origin were detected inside the scaffold, suggesting invasion from some capillaries. Altogether, this study demonstrates that POSS-PCU displays excellent bioactivity and hADSC/POSS-PCU bionanoscaffolds offer much promise for autologous cell-based tissue engineering for clinical applications.Nanomedicine: nanotechnology, biology, and medicine 09/2013; · 6.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Signaling between the various cell types in the heart has been investigated for decades. However, relatively little is known about the interplay between the cardiac fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, which help to maintain myocardial tissue structure and function, and resident cardiac or extracardiac stem cells involved in tissue homeostasis and repair. Much of our knowledge about these interactions is derived from experimental animal models, especially those of myocardial infarction and stem cell transplantation. However, it still remains incompletely understood how stem cell therapy could modulate cardiac fibrosis in a beneficial manner and, how on the other hand, fibrotic processes in the heart may affect the therapeutic potential of stem cell therapy. Detailed and mechanistic insight into these matters would expedite the therapeutic optimization of cardiac cell therapy for the fibrotic heart and may even provide a basis for future biological therapies aiming for reversal of cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, the main focus of this review is to discuss interactions between myofibroblasts and stem cells, especially in adult and diseased, fibrotic myocardium, and highlight those aspects that require more investigation using dedicated models and tools.Cardiovascular Research 02/2014; · 5.81 Impact Factor