Associations between weight-related eating behaviors and adiposity in postmenopausal Japanese American and white women
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to test the associations between cognitive and psychological eating behavior traits and detailed measures of adiposity and body fat distribution using imaging-based methods in a cross-sectional study. Eating behavior traits (compensatory and routine restraint, external eating, and emotional eating) were assessed using the validated Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire, and measures of adiposity using anthropometry, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Each adiposity outcome of interest (total fat, ratio of trunk fat to periphery fat, visceral and subcutaneous fats as % of abdominal area, and % liver fat) was regressed on the four eating behaviors while adjusting for age and race/ethnicity. This study included a total of 60 postmenopausal Japanese American (n=30) and white (n=30) women (age: 60-65 years, BMI: 18.8-39.6 kg/m(2)). Weight-related eating behavior traits did not differ by ethnicity. Higher external eating scores were associated with measures of total adiposity, including higher BMI (β=0.36, p=0.02) and DXA total fat mass (β=0.41, p=0.001), and with MRI abdominal subcutaneous fat (β=0.55, p=0.001). Higher routine restraint scores were associated with visceral adiposity (β=0.42, p=0.04). Our findings suggest that different weight-related eating behavior traits might increase not only total adiposity but also abdominal and visceral fat deposition associated with higher metabolic risks. Future research, preferably in a prospective study of men and women and including biomarkers related to psychological stress, will be needed to explore potential underlying biological mechanisms.
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ABSTRACT: Background:In the Multiethnic Cohort Study, Japanese Americans (JA) have lower mean body mass index (BMI) compared with Caucasians, but show a higher waist-to-hip ratio at similar BMI values and a greater risk of diabetes and obesity-associated cancers.Objective:We investigated the abdominal, visceral and hepatic fat distribution in these Asian and Caucasian Americans.Design:A cross-sectional sample of 60 female cohort participants (30 JA and 30 Caucasians), of ages 60-65 years and BMIs 18.5-40 kg m, underwent anthropometric measurements and a whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan: a subset of 48 women also had abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Results:By design, JA women had similar BMIs (mean 26.5 kg m) to Caucasian women (27.1 kg m). JA women were found to have a significantly smaller hip circumference (96.9 vs 103.6 cm; P=0.007) but not a significantly lower DXA total fat mass (25.5 vs 28.8 kg; P=0.16). After adjusting for age and DXA total fat mass, JA women had a greater waist-to-hip ratio (0.97 vs 0.89; P<0.0001), DXA trunk fat (15.4 vs 13.9 kg; P=0.0004) and MRI % abdominal visceral fat (23.9 vs 18.5%; P=0.01) and a lower DXA leg fat mass (8.2 vs 10.0 kg; P=<.0001). Their MRI % subcutaneous fat (33.4 vs 30.2%; P=0.21) and % liver fat (5.8 vs 3.8%; P=0.06) did not significantly differ from that of Caucasian women.Conclusions:Our findings build on limited past evidence, suggesting that Asian women carry greater abdominal and visceral fat when compared with Caucasian women with similar overall adiposity. This may contribute to their elevated metabolic risk for obesity-related diseases.Nutrition & Diabetes 05/2011; 1(5):e6. DOI:10.1038/nutd.2011.2 · 1.52 Impact Factor
Article: Restrained and unrestrained eating.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nisbett's (1972) model of obesity implies that individual differences in relative deprivation (relative to set-point weight) within obese and normal weight groups should produce corresponding within-group differences in eating behavior. Normal weight subjects were separated into hypothetically deprived (high restraint) and non-deprived (low restraint) groups. The expectation that high restraint subjects' intake would vary directly with preload size while low restraint subjects would eat in inverse proportion to preload size, was confirmed. It was concluded that relative deprivation rather than obesity per se may be the cirtical determinant of individual differences in eating behavior. Consideration was given to the concept of "restraint" as an important behavioral mechanism affecting the expression of physiologically-based hungar.Journal of Personality 01/1976; 43(4):647-60. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To put into relationship the dietary and anthropometric profile of men and women with their eating behaviors (cognitive dietary restraint, disinhibition, and susceptibility to hunger) and to assess whether gender and obesity status influence these associations. Anthropometric measurements (including visceral adipose tissue accumulation), dietary profile (3-day food record), and eating behaviors (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were determined in a sample of 244 men and 352 women. Women had significantly higher cognitive dietary restraint and disinhibition scores than men (p < 0.0001). In both genders, scores for disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger, but not for cognitive dietary restraint, were higher in obese subjects than in overweight and nonobese subjects (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed between rigid restraint and most of the anthropometric variables studied (0.12 <or= r <or= 0.16). Moreover, in women, flexible restraint was negatively associated with body fat and waist circumference (r = -0.11). Cognitive dietary restraint and rigid restraint were positively related to BMI among nonobese women (0.19 <or= r <or= 0.20), whereas in obese men, cognitive dietary restraint and flexible restraint tended to be negatively correlated with BMI (-0.20 <or= r <or= -0.22; p = 0.10). Gender could mediate associations observed between eating behaviors and anthropometric profile. It was also found that disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger are positively associated with the level of obesity. On the other hand, cognitive dietary restraint is not consistently related to body weight and adiposity, whereas rigid and flexible restraint are oppositely associated to obesity status, which suggests that it is important to differentiate the subscales of cognitive dietary restraint. Finally, counseling aimed at coping with disinhibition and susceptibility to hunger could be of benefit for the long-term treatment of obesity.Obesity research 07/2003; 11(6):783-92. DOI:10.1038/oby.2003.109 · 4.95 Impact Factor