Analysis of resonance Raman data on the blue copper site in pseudoazurin: Excited state π and σ charge transfer distortions and their relation to ground state reorganization energy.
ABSTRACT The short Cu(2+)-S(Met) bond in pseudoazurin (PAz) results in the presence of two relatively intense S(p)(π) and S(p)(σ) charge transfer (CT) transitions. This has enabled resonance Raman (rR) data to be obtained for each excited state. The rR data show very different intensity distribution patterns for the vibrations in the 300-500cm(-1) region. Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) calculations have been used to determine that the change in intensity distribution between the S(p)(π) and S(p)(σ) excited states reflects the differential enhancement of S(Cys) backbone modes with Cu-S(Cys)-C(β) out-of-plane (oop) and in-plane (ip) bend character in their respective potential energy distributions (PEDs). The rR excited state distortions have been related to ground state reorganization energies (λs) and predict that, in addition to M-L stretches, the Cu-S(Cys)-C(β) oop bend needs to be considered. DFT calculations predict a large distortion in the Cu-S(Cys)-C(β) oop bending coordinate upon reduction of a blue copper (BC) site; however, this distortion is not present in the X-ray crystal structures of reduced BC sites. The lack of Cu-S(Cys)-C(β) oop distortion upon reduction corresponds to a previously unconsidered constraint on the thiolate ligand orientation in the reduced state of BC proteins and can be considered as a contribution to the entatic/rack nature of BC sites.
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ABSTRACT: In order to further reduce the sulfur content in liquid hydrocarbon fuels, a desulfurization process by adsorption for removing dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and propylmercaptan (PM) was investigated. Bentonite adsorbents modified by for the desulfurization of model oil was investigated. The results indicated that the modified bentonite adsorbents were effective for adsorption of DMS and PM. The bentonite adsorbents were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis (TGA). The acidity was measured by FT-IR spectroscopy. Several factors that influence the desulfurization capability, including loading and calcination temperature, were studied. The maximum sulfur adsorption capacity was obtained at a Cu(II) loading of 15 wt %, and the optimum calcination temperature was . Spectral shifts of the (C-S) and (Cu-S) vibrations of the complex compound obtained by the reaction of and DMS were measured with the Raman spectrum. On the basis of complex adsorption reaction and hybrid orbital theory, the adsorption on modified bentonite occurred via multilayer intermolecular forces and S-M () bonds.Bulletin- Korean Chemical Society 03/2013; 34(3). DOI:10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.3.777
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ABSTRACT: Within Cu-containing electron transfer active sites, the role of the axial ligand in type 1 sites is well defined, yet its role in the binuclear mixed-valent CuA sites is less clear. Recently, the mutation of the axial Met to Leu in a CuA site engineered into azurin (CuA Az) was found to have a limited effect on E(0) relative to this mutation in blue copper (BC). Detailed low-temperature absorption and magnetic circular dichroism, resonance Raman, and electron paramagnetic resonance studies on CuA Az (WT) and its M123X (X = Q, L, H) axial ligand variants indicated stronger axial ligation in M123L/H. Spectroscopically validated density functional theory calculations show that the smaller ΔE(0) is attributed to H2O coordination to the Cu center in the M123L mutant in CuA but not in the equivalent BC variant. The comparable stabilization energy of the oxidized over the reduced state in CuA and BC (CuA ∼ 180 mV; BC ∼ 250 mV) indicates that the S(Met) influences E(0) similarly in both. Electron delocalization over two Cu centers in CuA was found to minimize the Jahn-Teller distortion induced by the axial Met ligand and lower the inner-sphere reorganization energy. The Cu-S(Met) bond in oxidized CuA is weak (5.2 kcal/mol) but energetically similar to that of BC, which demonstrates that the protein matrix also serves an entatic role in keeping the Met bound to the active site to tune down E(0) while maintaining a low reorganization energy required for rapid electron transfer under physiological conditions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 08/2013; 110(36). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1314242110
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ABSTRACT: The structures of two types of guanidine-quinoline copper complexes have been investigated by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), resonance Raman and UV/Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and density functional theory (DFT). Independent of the oxidation state, the two structures, which are virtually identical for solids and complexes in solution, resemble each other strongly and are connected by a reversible electron transfer at 0.33 V. By resonant excitation of the two entatic copper complexes, the transition state of the electron transfer is accessible through vibrational modes, which are coupled to metal-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and ligand-metal charge transfer (LMCT) states.Angewandte Chemie International Edition 01/2014; 53(1):299-304. DOI:10.1002/anie.201306061