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Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia

School of Applied Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield, UK.
The American Journal of Human Genetics (Impact Factor: 10.99). 05/2012; 90(5):915-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.04.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human populations, along with those of many other species, are thought to have contracted into a number of refuge areas at the height of the last Ice Age. European populations are believed to be, to a large extent, the descendants of the inhabitants of these refugia, and some extant mtDNA lineages can be traced to refugia in Franco-Cantabria (haplogroups H1, H3, V, and U5b1), the Italian Peninsula (U5b3), and the East European Plain (U4 and U5a). Parts of the Near East, such as the Levant, were also continuously inhabited throughout the Last Glacial Maximum, but unlike western and eastern Europe, no archaeological or genetic evidence for Late Glacial expansions into Europe from the Near East has hitherto been discovered. Here we report, on the basis of an enlarged whole-genome mitochondrial database, that a substantial, perhaps predominant, signal from mitochondrial haplogroups J and T, previously thought to have spread primarily from the Near East into Europe with the Neolithic population, may in fact reflect dispersals during the Late Glacial period, ∼19-12 thousand years (ka) ago.

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    • "Also, interesting is the abundance and diversity of J1c samples in Slovenia, represented by eight haplotypes and at a frequency of >11%. The proportion of this subclade in other sampled populations ranges between 2% and 6% and in Europe J1 usually does not exceed 9% (Pala et al., 2012). A reduction in haplogroup H diversity has also been detected in thě Zumberak sample (only H * , H1, H2, H5, H12, H14, H20 and H27 are detected), but with elevated values "
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    • "Also, interesting is the abundance and diversity of J1c samples in Slovenia, represented by eight haplotypes and at a frequency of >11%. The proportion of this subclade in other sampled populations ranges between 2% and 6% and in Europe J1 usually does not exceed 9% (Pala et al., 2012). A reduction in haplogroup H diversity has also been detected in thě Zumberak sample (only H * , H1, H2, H5, H12, H14, H20 and H27 are detected), but with elevated values "
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