Dietary fiber content influences soluble carbohydrate levels in ruminal fluids.
ABSTRACT The soluble carbohydrate concentration of ruminal fluid, as affected by dietary forage content (DFC) and/or ruminally undegradable intake protein content (UIPC), was determined. Four ruminally cannulated steers, in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, were offered diets containing high (75 % of DM) or low (25 % of DM) DFC and high (6 % of DM) or low (5 % of DM) UIPC, in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Zinc-treated SBM was the primary UIP source. Soluble hexose concentration (145.1 μM) in ruminal fluid (RF) of steers fed low DFC diets exhibited a higher trend (P = 0.08) than that (124.5 μM) of steers fed high DFC diets. UIPC did not modulate (P = 0.54) ruminal soluble hexose concentrations. Regardless of diet, soluble hexose concentration declined immediately after feeding and did not rise until 3 h after feeding (P < 0.0001). Cellobiose (≈90 %) and glucose (≈10 %) were the major soluble hexoses present in RF. Maltose was not detected. Soluble glucose concentration (13.0 μM) was not modified by either UIPC (P = 0.40) nor DFC (P = 0.61). However, a DFC by post-prandial time interaction was detected (P = 0.02). Pentose concentrations were greater (P = 0.02) in RF of steers fed high DFC (100.2 μM) than steers fed low DFC (177.0 μM). UIPC did not influence (P = 0.35) soluble pentose concentration. The identity of soluble pentoses in ruminal fluid could not be determined. However, unsubstituted xylose and arabinose were excluded. These data indicate that: (i) soluble carbohydrate concentrations remain in ruminal fluid during digestion and fermentation; (ii) slight diurnal changes began after feeding; (iii) DFC influences the soluble carbohydrate concentration in RF; and (iv) UIPC of these diets does not affect the soluble carbohydrate concentration of RF.
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ABSTRACT: Cellulose degradation and metabolism in the rumen can be adversely affected by the presence of soluble sugars, but relatively little information is available on substrate preferences of cellulolytic bacteria. When the ruminal bacterium Ruminococcus albus was incubated with a combination of cellobiose and glucose, the organism preferentially utilized the disaccharide. This preference appeared to be related to repression of glucose uptake systems in cellobiose-grown cells. Glucose transport kinetics exhibited low- and high-affinity uptake, and high-affinity transport was apparently driven by ATP hydrolysis. Bacterial yield in continuous culture was as much as 38% greater when the organism was grown on cellobiose versus glucose, and the increased yield could be partially attributed to constitutive cellobiose phosphorylase activity. The maintenance coefficient of glucose-grown cells was significantly greater than that of cells provided with cellobiose (0.225 g of glucose per g of protein per h versus 0.042 g of cellobiose per g of protein per h), and this result suggested that more energy was devoted to glucose uptake. Substrate affinities were examined in carbon-excess continuous culture, and affinities for glucose and cellobiose were relatively low (0.97 and 3.16 mM, respectively). Although R. albus maintained a proton motive force of approximately 60 mV from pH 6.7 to 5.5, growth ceased below pH 6.0, and this inhibition of growth may have been caused by a depletion of ATP at low pH.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 09/1993; 59(8):2631-7. · 3.68 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes countercurrent fermentation to anaerobically convert corn stover and pig manure to mixed carboxylic acids using a mixed culture of mesophilic microorganisms. Corn stover was pretreated with lime to increase digestibility. The Continuum Particle Distribution Model (CPDM) was used to simulate continuous fermentors based on data collected from batch experiments. This model saves considerable time in determining optimum operating conditions. For 80% corn stover/20% pig manure, the highest total carboxylic acid productivity was 1.81 g/(L of liquid. d) at a concentration of 21.4 g total acid/L. The highest total acid selectivity, yield, and conversion were 0.714 g total acid/g volatile solids (VS) digested, 0.550 g total acid/g VS fed, and 0.770 g VS digested/g VS fed, respectively, at a concentration of 16.0 g total acid/L. CPDM predicted the acid concentration and conversion within 13.4 and 11.6%, respectively.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/2003; 83(2):191-200. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fermentation of cellulose in the rumen occurs through the interactions of many microbial species. The initial degradation of cellulose is caused by cellulase-producing organisms. The soluble hydrolysis products are used by both cellulolytic and noncellulolytic organisms to produce acetate, propionate, and butyrate and the important intermediates H2 and succinate. Interactions between species are necessary for the decarboxylation of succinate to propionate. H2 is used by methanogenic bacteria to reduce CO2 to CH4. The removal of H2 by methanogenesis increases the production of acetate from carbohydrates by several important cellulose- and carbohydrate-fermenting microbial species. Monensin and lasalocid appear to alter the overall fermentation by selecting for populations that produce relatively larger amounts of propionate and against populations that produce relatively larger amounts of acetate and H2. Cellulose fermentation in the human large intestine is compared with fermentation in the rumen.Federation proceedings 02/1983; 42(1):109-13.