Scatter correction in cone-beam CT via a half beam blocker technique allowing simultaneous acquisition of scatter and image information.
ABSTRACT X-ray scatter incurred to detectors degrades the quality of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and represents a problem in volumetric image guided and adaptive radiation therapy. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, due to missing information resulting from the obstruction of the blocker, such methods require dual scanning or dynamically moving blocker to obtain a complete volumetric image. Here, we propose a half beam blocker-based approach, in conjunction with a total variation (TV) regularized Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts by simultaneously acquiring image and scatter information from a single-rotation CBCT scan.
A half beam blocker, comprising lead strips, is used to simultaneously acquire image data on one side of the projection data and scatter data on the other half side. One-dimensional cubic B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied to derive patient specific scatter information by using the scatter distributions on strips. The estimated scatter is subtracted from the projection image acquired at the opposite view. With scatter-corrected projections where this subtraction is completed, the FDK algorithm based on a cosine weighting function is performed to reconstruct CBCT volume. To suppress the noise in the reconstructed CBCT images produced by geometric errors between two opposed projections and interpolated scatter information, total variation regularization is applied by a minimization using a steepest gradient descent optimization method. The experimental studies using Catphan504 and anthropomorphic phantoms were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme.
The scatter-induced shading artifacts were markedly suppressed in CBCT using the proposed scheme. Compared with CBCT without a blocker, the nonuniformity value was reduced from 39.3% to 3.1%. The root mean square error relative to values inside the regions of interest selected from a benchmark scatter free image was reduced from 50 to 11.3. The TV regularization also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio.
An asymmetric half beam blocker-based FDK acquisition and reconstruction technique has been established. The proposed scheme enables simultaneous detection of patient specific scatter and complete volumetric CBCT reconstruction without additional requirements such as prior images, dual scans, or moving strips.
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ABSTRACT: To develop and validate an adaptive intervention strategy for radiotherapy of head-and-neck cancer that accounts for systematic deformations by modifying the planning-CT (pCT) to the average misalignments in daily cone beam CT (CBCT) measured with deformable registration (DR). Daily CBCT scans (808 scans) for 25 patients were retrospectively registered to the pCT with B-spline DR. The average deformation vector field ( ) was used to deform the pCT for adaptive intervention. Two strategies were simulated: single intervention after 10 fractions and weekly intervention with an from the previous week. The model was geometrically validated with the residual misalignment of anatomical landmarks both on bony-anatomy (BA; automatically generated) and soft-tissue (ST; manually identified). Systematic deformations were 2.5/3.4mm vector length (BA/ST). Single intervention reduced deformations to 1.5/2.7mm (BA/ST). Weekly intervention resulted in 1.0/2.2mm (BA/ST) and accounted better for progressive changes. 15 patients had average systematic deformations >2mm (BA): reductions were 1.1/1.9mm (single/weekly BA). ST improvements were underestimated due to observer and registration variability. Adaptive intervention with a pCT modified to the average anatomy during treatment successfully reduces systematic deformations. The improved accuracy could possibly be exploited in margin reduction and/or dose escalation.Radiotherapy and Oncology 09/2013; · 4.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Image reconstruction and motion model estimation in four-dimensional cone-beam CT (4D-CBCT) are conventionally handled as two sequential steps. Due to the limited number of projections at each phase, the image quality of 4D-CBCT is degraded by view aliasing artifacts, and the accuracy of subsequent motion modeling is decreased by the inferior 4D-CBCT. The objective of this work is to enhance both the image quality of 4D-CBCT and the accuracy of motion model estimation with a novel strategy enabling simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR).Methods: The proposed SMEIR algorithm consists of two alternating steps: (1) model-based iterative image reconstruction to obtain a motion-compensated primary CBCT (m-pCBCT) and (2) motion model estimation to obtain an optimal set of deformation vector fields (DVFs) between the m-pCBCT and other 4D-CBCT phases. The motion-compensated image reconstruction is based on the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) coupled with total variation minimization. During the forward- and backprojection of SART, measured projections from an entire set of 4D-CBCT are used for reconstruction of the m-pCBCT by utilizing the updated DVF. The DVF is estimated by matching the forward projection of the deformed m-pCBCT and measured projections of other phases of 4D-CBCT. The performance of the SMEIR algorithm is quantitatively evaluated on a 4D NCAT phantom. The quality of reconstructed 4D images and the accuracy of tumor motion trajectory are assessed by comparing with those resulting from conventional sequential 4D-CBCT reconstructions (FDK and total variation minimization) and motion estimation (demons algorithm). The performance of the SMEIR algorithm is further evaluated by reconstructing a lung cancer patient 4D-CBCT.Results: Image quality of 4D-CBCT is greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm in both phantom and patient studies. When all projections are used to reconstruct a 3D-CBCT by FDK, motion-blurring artifacts are present, leading to a 24.4% relative reconstruction error in the NACT phantom. View aliasing artifacts are present in 4D-CBCT reconstructed by FDK from 20 projections, with a relative error of 32.1%. When total variation minimization is used to reconstruct 4D-CBCT, the relative error is 18.9%. Image quality of 4D-CBCT is substantially improved by using the SMEIR algorithm and relative error is reduced to 7.6%. The maximum error (MaxE) of tumor motion determined from the DVF obtained by demons registration on a FDK-reconstructed 4D-CBCT is 3.0, 2.3, and 7.1 mm along left-right (L-R), anterior-posterior (A-P), and superior-inferior (S-I) directions, respectively. From the DVF obtained by demons registration on 4D-CBCT reconstructed by total variation minimization, the MaxE of tumor motion is reduced to 1.5, 0.5, and 5.5 mm along L-R, A-P, and S-I directions. From the DVF estimated by SMEIR algorithm, the MaxE of tumor motion is further reduced to 0.8, 0.4, and 1.5 mm along L-R, A-P, and S-I directions, respectively.Conclusions: The proposed SMEIR algorithm is able to estimate a motion model and reconstruct motion-compensated 4D-CBCT. The SMEIR algorithm improves image reconstruction accuracy of 4D-CBCT and tumor motion trajectory estimation accuracy as compared to conventional sequential 4D-CBCT reconstruction and motion estimation.Medical Physics 10/2013; 40(10):101912. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: On-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging has been widely available in radiotherapy clinic for target localization. However, the extra radiation dose from CBCT is always a concern for its frequent use. Additionally, the relatively large scatter in CBCT often degrades the image quality. By using collimators, some of the X-rays can be stopped from reaching the patient and the detectors, hence both the scatter and the patient doses are simultaneously reduced. The authors show in this work that the collimated CBCT data can be reconstructed without any noticeable artifacts for certain collimator blocking ratios and blocking patterns, and the focus of this work is to study the relationship between the image quality and these two collimator factors.Methods: A CBCT system with collimators was simulated following the typical geometry used in clinic. Different collimator designs were tested by varying the size and the number of the collimator slits, and at the same time, the ratio of transmitted beams to total beams was varied from 100% to 10%, resulting in hundreds of different simulation scenarios. Lung and pelvis phantoms created from patients CT images were used in the simulations, and an iterative reconstruction algorithm using the compressed sensing technique was adopted. The image quality was examined by root mean square errors (RMSEs) and compared with the conventional CBCT images.Results: The CBCT image quality increases as the amount of beams passing through the collimators increases, and decreases as the size of the collimator slits increases. With ultra-high resolution collimators, the RMSEs were comparable to the conventional CBCT image quality until the beam transmission rate is reduced below 25%.Conclusions: Collimators can reduce the scatters and radiation dose, however, the collimated CBCT image quality is strongly dependent on both the collimator blocking ratio and the blocking pattern. To achieve image quality comparable to the conventional CBCT, the amount of information and data format must be adequate.Medical Physics 12/2013; 40(12):121913. · 2.91 Impact Factor